Births: Provisional Data for 2016

June 30, 2017

Questions for Brady E. Hamilton, Ph.D., Demographer, Statistician, and Lead Author on “Births: Provisional Data for 2016

Q: Why did you decide to change the name of the report from preliminary to provisional?

BH: report is part of the National Vital Statistics System, Vital Statistics Rapid Release provisional data series which replaces the preliminary report series to provide a consistent set of quarterly and annual data releases. Except for small changes in record weights, the same processing procedure was used for provisional as was used for the preliminary data and the data are comparable.


Q: How does provisional 2016 data on U.S. births overall compare to previous years?

BH: The provisional number of births for the United States was down 1% in 2016 from the final number of birth in 2015. The general fertility rate was down too from 2015, 1%, to 62.0 births per 1,000 women aged 15–44, a record low for the county.

Birth rates declined for women in all age groups under 30 years between 2015 and 2016, to record lows for all groups, whereas the rates for women in their 30s and 40s rose.

The nonmarital birth rate declined 3% in 2016. In 2016, slightly more than 3 out of 4 women began prenatal care in the first trimester, down 3% from 2015. The cesarean delivery rate declined in 2016 for the fourth year in a row (to 31.9%). However, the preterm birth rate rose for the second year in a row in 2016 (to 9.84%) and the low birthweight rate was also up for the second straight year in 2016 (to 8.16%).


Q: How has the birth rate changed for U.S. teenagers in provisional 2016 data?

BH: The birth rate for teenagers aged 15–19 declined 9% in 2016 to 20.3 births per 1,000 women, with rates declining 11% for both younger (aged 15–17) and 8% for older (aged 18–19) teenagers. The 9% decline for teenaged 15-19 from 2015 to 2016 is atop of a continuous average decline of 8% from 2007 through 2014.

(The rates for younger and older teens declined on average by 11% and 8% from 2007 through 2014.)


Q: Was there anything in the 2016 provisional birth data that surprised you?

BH: Apart from the continued, unprecedented decline in teen birth, it is worth noting that women aged 30-34 have the highest birth rate (102.6 births per 1,000 women) in 2016 than any other age group. Since 1983, the rate for women in their late thirties was the highest.

In addition, it is also worth noting the rise in the preterm birth rate which was up again in 2016 (by 2%), after falling 8% from 2007 to 2014.


Q: What is the take home message from this report?

BH: The number of births and general fertility rate were down in 2016, as were the rates for women under 30 years of age.  The percentage of births beginning prenatal care in the first trimester and the cesarean delivery rate were also down in 2016, whereas preterm birth and low birthweight rates rose.


Stat of the Day – June 28, 2017

June 28, 2017


40th Annual Report on the Health of the Nation Features Long-Term Trends in Health and Health Care Delivery in the United States

June 28, 2017

CDC today released Health, United States, 2016, the 40th annual report on the health of the nation from the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) to the President and Congress.

This year’s report features a Chartbook on Long-Term Trends in health and health care delivery over the past 40 years. From declines in cigarette smoking and increases in prescription drug use to changes in expenditures for hospitals and home health care, the annual report also explores population changes that have affected patterns of disease, as well as health care access and utilization since 1975. The 27 charts and 114 tables present birth rates and infant mortality, life expectancy and leading causes of death, health risk behaviors, health care utilization and insurance coverage, and health expenditures.

Among the highlights:

  • Between 1975 and 2015, life expectancy increased for the total population and for males and females. However, between 2014 and 2015, life expectancy declined by 0.1 years for the total population, 0.2 for males, and 0.1 for females.
  • The infant mortality rate decreased 63 percent, from 16.07 to 5.90 deaths per 1,000 live births between 1975 and 2015.
  • Between 1975 and 2015, the age-adjusted heart disease death rate decreased 61 percent from 431.2 to 168.5 deaths per 100,000 population. The age-adjusted cancer death rate decreased 21 percent from 200.1 to 158.5 deaths per 100,000 population. Heart disease and cancer remain the top two causes of death in the United States.
  • Between 1974 and 2015, the age-adjusted prevalence of current cigarette smoking declined from 36.9 percent to 15.6 percent among persons aged 25 and over.
  • The age-adjusted percentage of adults aged 20 and over with obesity increased steadily from 22.9 percent in 1988–1994 to 37.8 percent in 2013–2014.
  • Prescription drug use increased for all age groups between 1988-94 and 2013-14. Among adults 65 and over, use of five or more prescription drugs in the past 30 days increased from 13.8 percent to 42.2 percent during the same period.
  • The percentage of persons with an overnight hospital stay was lower in 2015 than in 1975 for males and females under age 75, and was not significantly different in 2015 than in 1975 for males and females aged 75 and over.
  • Between 1975 and 2014, the number of community hospital beds per 1,000 resident population fell by almost one-half from 4.6 to 2.5. The average length-of-stay per hospital stay fell by almost one-third from 7.7 to 5.5 days, and occupancy rates declined almost 16 percent from 75.0 percent to 62.8 percent.

The complete report and related data products are available on the Health, United States website at:
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/hus.htm


Vaccination Coverage Among Adults Aged 65 and Over: United States, 2015

June 28, 2017

Questions for Tina Norris, Ph.D., Health Statistician and Lead Author of “Vaccination Coverage Among Adults Aged 65 and Over: United States, 2015

Q:  Why did you conduct this study?

TN:  We produced this report because vaccination is an important preventive health measure. Older adults have greater susceptibility to—and complications from—disease, and so they stand to benefit greatly from vaccinations as a preventive health measure. This study explores how the percentage of adults aged 65 and over, who received these recommended vaccinations, varied by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and poverty status.


Q: What finding in your new study most surprised you and why?

TN:  While not unexpected, it was quite striking to see the overall variation in rates by vaccination type. We observed quite a range in the rates of vaccine coverage for influenza, pneumococcal disease, tetanus, and shingles. For example, more than two-thirds of adults aged 65 and over had an influenza vaccine in the past 12 months, while one-third had ever had a shingles vaccine.


Q:  Your report indicates you’ve examined receipt of vaccinations among community-dwelling adults aged 65 and over. What do you mean by “community-dwelling adults?”

TN:  By community-dwelling, we mean those individuals who are not living in any type of institutional setting (ex. nursing homes, hospitals, etc.).


Q:  What differences did you see among race and ethnic groups, and between the sexes?

TN:  We did see a number of significant differences in vaccination coverage among race groups and between the sexes. In terms of race, Non-Hispanic white adults were more likely than Hispanic and non-Hispanic black adults to have had an influenza vaccine in the past 12 months. Non-Hispanic white adults were more likely than Hispanic, non-Hispanic black, and non-Hispanic Asian adults to have had a tetanus vaccine in the past 10 years or to ever have had a vaccination for pneumococcal disease or shingles.

Vaccination also varied by sex. Among adults aged 65 and over, men were more likely than women to have had a tetanus vaccine in the past 10 years. However, men were less likely than women to have had a shingles vaccine at some point in the past.


Q:  What would you say is the take-home message of this report?

TN:  I think the take-home message of this report is that many adults aged 65 and over are not receiving recommended vaccinations. For example, two-thirds of adults never had a shingles vaccine, and nearly one-half did not have a tetanus vaccine in the past 10 years. We also see gaps in coverage for all four vaccinations—influenza, pneumococcal, tetanus, and shingles—by sex, age group, race and ethnicity, and poverty status.


Q:  Did you look at any titer-level testing for adults prior to vaccination receipt as a factor in vaccination coverage?

TN:  While titer-level testing is an interesting component in the strength of a body’s immune response to disease, titer-level testing was out-of-scope for this project.


Q:  Did your survey look at the different Medicare types of insurance as a factor in vaccination coverage for the population you studied?

TN:  No, insurance coverage was not included due to the cross-sectional nature of the survey and the long recall period for some of the vaccinations.  However, direct costs—and when the cost is incurred for vaccinations—have been shown to vary according to insurance coverage, and have been linked to financial burden for older adults.


Stat of the Day – June 27, 2017

June 27, 2017


Stat of the Day – June 26, 2017

June 26, 2017


QuickStats: Percentage of Adults Aged ≥18 Years Who Reported Having a Severe Headache or Migraine in the Past 3 Months, by Sex and Age Group — National Health Interview Survey, United States, 2015

June 26, 2017

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In 2015, 20.0% of women and 9.7% of men aged ≥18 years had a severe headache or migraine in the past 3 months.

Overall and for each age group, women aged ≥18 years were more likely than men to have had a severe headache or migraine in the past 3 months.

For both sexes, a report of a severe headache or migraine in the past 3 months decreased with advancing age, from 11.0% among men aged 18–44 years to 3.4% among men aged ≥75 years and from 24.7% among women aged 18–44 years to 6.3% among women aged ≥75 years.

Source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/66/wr/mm6624a8.htm