Mortality trends by race and ethnicity among adults aged 25 and over: United States, 2000–2017

July 23, 2019

Questions for Lead Author Sally Curtin, Health Statistician, of “Mortality trends by race and ethnicity among adults aged 25 and over: United States, 2000–2017.”

Q: What is different in this report from what you released in the 2017 final deaths report?

SC: The 2017 final death report shows death rates by race and ethnicity for 5- and 10-year age groups.  The difference is that we are using broad age groups to categorize adults and examining mortality trends:

  • Young adults 25-44
  • Middle-aged 45-64
  • Elderly 65+

Q: Why did you decide to focus on death rates by race and ethnicity for this report?

SC: Compared with death rates for non-Hispanic white (NHW) adults, traditionally rates for non-Hispanic black (NHB) have been the higher while rates for Hispanic have been lower.  We wanted to see if these differences were narrowing or widening.  We also wanted to examine whether trends were similar among the race/ethnicity groups for the three age groups of adults.


Q: How did the data vary by age groups?

SC: Trends differed by age group.  For NHW, NHB and Hispanic, all groups experienced increases over the period for young adults 25-44, NHW and NHB experienced increases for middle-aged adults 45-64, and all groups experienced declines in death rates for the elderly.


Q: Was there a specific finding in your report that surprised you?

SC: A couple of very interesting findings. First, all race/ethnicity groups are seeing increases in death rates for young adults aged 25-44, by 21% since 2012 for NHW and NHB.  Also, death rates for elderly adults ages 65+ are now higher for NHW than NHB.


Q: Why did the death rate decline for U.S. Hispanic adults?

SC: Some of the causes of death which have caused the rates to stop declining, or even to increase, among NHW and NHB have not affected Hispanic adults similarly.  For example, a recent report showed that heart disease death rates have been increasing among middle-aged NHW and NHB adults, but not for Hispanic adults.

 

 


Eye Disorders and Vision Loss among U.S. Adults Aged 45 and Over with Diagnosed Diabetes

July 18, 2019

Questions for Lead Author Amy Cha, Statistician, of “Eye Disorders and Vision Loss among U.S. Adults Aged 45 and Over with Diagnosed Diabetes.”

Q: Why did you decide to focus on eye disorder and vision loss for adults aged 45 or older with diagnosed diabetes for this report?

AC: The prevalence of diabetes increases with age. Eye disorders are a frequent complication from diabetes and vision loss is a severe condition that often has a negative impact on a person’s quality of life and mental health. Moreover, duration of diabetes is a risk factor for the progression of visual problems.

This report compared the age-adjusted percentages of older adults (aged 45 and over) with diagnosed diabetes who were told by a doctor or other health professional that they had cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, or macular degeneration and vision loss due to these disorders, by years since their diabetes diagnosis.


Q: Do you have data that directly corresponds with this report that goes back further than 2016?

AC: Data on diabetes, cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and macular degeneration were collected in 2002 and 2008 by the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). However, this is the first report covering the prevalence of eye disorders and vision loss among older adults with diagnosed diabetes.


Q: Was there a specific finding in your report that surprised you?

AC: We were surprised that even after accounting for age, adults who have had diagnosed diabetes for 10 years or more were still more likely to have eye disorders than those having diagnosed diabetes for less than 10 years.


Q: Why is it that so many adults with diagnosed diabetes have cataracts?

AC: Diabetes can affect many parts of the body. This report did not examine the causal pathway of diabetes and cataracts.  This report focused on the prevalence of eye disorders by years since diabetes diagnosis in adults aged 45 and older.  We compared two time intervals, those who were diagnosed more recently – less than 10 years, and those who were  diagnosed with diabetes a longer time – 10 years or more. Cataracts and vision loss due to cataracts were both associated with longer duration since diabetes diagnosis.


Q: What is the take home message for this report?

AC: Adults who have had diagnosed diabetes for 10 years or more were more likely to report cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and macular degeneration than those with diagnosed diabetes for less than 10 years. In addition, adults who have had diagnosed diabetes for 10 years or more were more likely to report vision loss due to cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, and macular degeneration than those having diagnosed diabetes for less than 10 years.


Attempts to Lose Weight Among Adolescents Aged 16–19 in the United States, 2013–2016

July 17, 2019

Questions for Lead Author Kendra McDow, Health Statistician, of “Attempts to Lose Weight Among Adolescents Aged 16–19 in the United States, 2013–2016.”

Q: What was the most significant finding in your report?

KM: Almost 40% of adolescents 16-19 years old tried to lose weight in the past year and the groups with the highest percentages were girls, Hispanic teens and teens with obesity.


Q: Why do more Hispanic teens attempt to lose weight than other race/ethnic groups?

KM: Yes, that was an interesting finding. Data from another source – the Youth Behavioral Risk Surveillance System (YBRSS) support this finding. In 2017 YBRSS also found that Hispanic teens were more likely to try to lose weight compared to other racial/Hispanic-origin groups. Our study did not look at motivations or the reason why adolescents attempt to lose weight. This a great area for further study!


Q: Do we have any sense of whether the number/percent of teens trying to lose weight has increased or declined over time?

KM: Our study period was from 2013-2016. For this analysis we didn’t look at trends but we started to look into this and found some changes in the way the data were collected over time. We need to explore this more fully. Trend analysis using YRBSS (9th through 12th graders) showed a significant increase in weight loss attempts from 1991 through 2017 (41.8% to 47.1%).


Q: What type of exercising do teens do to lose weight?

KM: Exercise was the most commonly reported method to lose weight. Our study did not specifically look at the type or intensity of exercise adolescents are doing to lose weight. Regular physical activity among adolescents is important for life-long health.


Q: Is there a public health “take home message” here?

KM: Teens are employing multiple methods to lose weight. The vast majority, over 83%, of teens trying to lose weight were exercising. Over half were drinking water and almost half were eating less. And certain populations are more likely to attempt to lose weight, including girls, Hispanic adolescents and adolescents with obesity. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the promotion of healthy weight loss and adoption of healthy eating and physical activity.


Q: Anything else you’d like to add?

KM: We saw that the majority of adolescents who attempted to lose weight used recommended lifestyle modification strategies of healthy eating and exercise. In addition to exercise, drinking more water and eating less, 44.7% of adolescents reported they ate less junk food or fast food and 44.6% ate more fruits, vegetables and salads. This is promising! Of note, 16.5% (1 in 6 adolescents) reported skipping meals as a weight loss method. The American Academy of Pediatrics discourages unhealthy weight loss strategies, such as skipping meals and dieting, and encourages healthy eating and physical activity behaviors for adolescents


Unintentional Injury Death Rates in Rural and Urban Areas: United States, 1999–2017

July 16, 2019

Questions for Lead Author Henry Olaisen, EIS Fellow, of “Unintentional Injury Death Rates in Rural and Urban Areas: United States, 1999–2017.”

Q: Can you define what an unintentional injury death is?  Is there a difference in the term accidental death?

HO: Unintentional injury deaths consist of those deaths involving injuries for which there are no evidence of predetermined intent, meaning intention of harm to self or others. In 2017, the leading causes of unintentional deaths in the U.S. were drug overdose, motor vehicle crashes, and falls.

Unintentional injury deaths are a subset of injury deaths, and exclude those that are intentional (e.g. where there is intent to harm) and those where intent is unknown. Among drug overdose deaths, unintentional drug deaths comprise 87% of all deaths due to overdose.


Q: Do you have data that directly corresponds with this report that goes back further than 1999?

HO: We here at the CDC’s National Center for Health Statistics have data dating back to 1959. Given our focus on unintentional injury and the changing patterns of where people live and work in the U.S., we focused on the most recent 18 years, as they are trend patterns that not only tell an important story, but can guide decision-makers and inform new policies to avoid these types of preventable deaths in the near future.


Q: Was there a specific finding in your report that surprised you?

HO: We were surprised that drug overdose death rates are not only growing fastest in the last three years in suburban counties (“large fringe counties”), but that the rate of drug overdose deaths is now (in 2017) highest in small metro and suburban counties(“large fringe counties), and lowest in rural counties.


Q: Why do you think there is a difference in unintentional injury deaths from rural and urban areas?

HO: We observed differences in trends and patterns of unintentional injury deaths using mortality data from the   National Center for Health Statistics. Determining the reasons for the difference is a really important next step, and not something we looked at in this report. We at the National Center for Health Statistics encourage scientists to use these data to help us understand the underlying causes for these observed trends and patterns.


Q: What is the take home message for this report?

HO: Unintentional injury death rates – which are preventable deaths, are on the rise, with a steeper increase since 2014. Between 2014 and 2017, large fringe metro counties had the largest increase in unintentional drug overdose rates; small metro had the largest increase in motor vehicle death rates; and rural counties had the largest increase in death rates due to unintentional falls. While motor vehicle deaths have historically been the leading cause of unintentional deaths for several decades, in 2013 unintentional overdose deaths became the leading cause of unintentional deaths.


QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates from Female Breast Cancer by State — National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2017

July 12, 2019

In 2017, the overall age-adjusted death rate for female breast cancer was 19.9 per 100,000 population.

The highest death rates were in Mississippi (25.5), DC (24.3), and Louisiana (23.6).

The lowest death rates were in Hawaii (15.6), Alaska (16.3), New Hampshire (16.3), Wyoming (16.5), Rhode Island (16.6), Minnesota (16.7), South Dakota (17.3), Wisconsin (17.4), and Vermont (17.4).

Source: National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, mortality file. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/deaths.htm.

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6827a4.htm


Deaths from Motor Vehicle Traffic Accidents in July, 1999-2017

July 10, 2019

CAR_CRASHES

SOURCE:  National Vital Statistics System, 1999-2017, CDC WONDER


Deaths from Drowning in Swimming Pools or Natural Water, 1999-2017 (July)

July 9, 2019

DROWNING_JULY

SOURCE:  National Vital Statistics System, CDC WONDER, 1999-2017; ICD-1O Codes:  X67, X68, X69, X70