Patterns of Mammography, Pap Smear, and Colorectal Cancer Screening Services Among Women Aged 45 and Over

June 9, 2021

NHSR157_SampleQuestions for Yelena Gorina, Health Statistician and Lead Author of “Patterns of Mammography, Pap Smear, and Colorectal Cancer Screening Services Among Women Aged 45 and Over.”

Q: Why did you decide to focus on screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers in women?

YG: I was thinking about this topic since many years ago my step-father who was a gastroenterologist, introduced me to one of his patients who he saved by removing pre-cancerous polyps from her colon.  He was the first one who told me that colon cancer was 90% preventable if the screening would be done on a regular basis.


Q: Can you summarize how the percentage of cancer screenings varied by age groups?

YG: The percentage of cancer screenings varies by age and type of cancer and generally follow The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations. Percentage of colorectal cancer screening increase from 34% at age 45-54 to 72% at age 75-84 and then drop to 47% at age 85 and over. Percentage of mammography remains about 70% between age 45 and 84 and drops to 31% among those aged 85 and over. Percentage of cervical cancer screening decreases with age gradually from 78% among women 45–54 to 14% among those aged 85 and over.


Q: Do you have trend data for previous years?

YG: The objective of our report was to assess differences in screening for colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers by various characteristics using the data available for 2015 and 2018 National Health Interview Survey. status, behavioral factors, and health care utilization among noninstitutionalized civilian women aged 45 and over. The estimates from the National Center for Health publication Health US 2019 show that prevalence of mammography among women aged 50 and over remains about 65% since 2005;  use of Pap smears among women aged 18+ decreased from 78% in 2005 to 68% in 2018 45-64; and percentage of screening for colorectal cancer among women 50-75 increased from 44% om 2005 to 67% in 2018.


Q: Was there a specific finding in the data that surprised you from this report?

YG: A specific findings that surprised me in our report was Non-Hispanic white and black women aged 45-64 are more likely to be screened for breast cancer compared with Hispanic and non-Hispanic Asian women, and that 30% of non-Hispanic Asian women aged 65 and over received no screening for any of the three types of cancer, two times more compared with Hispanic and Non-Hispanic white and black women of the same age.


Q: What is the take home message for this report?

YG: We would like the readers note the disparities in the percentage screened for vulnerable groups of women, especially those with insurance and those without, those with more education and/or poor and those who had more education and not in poverty, and those who live in more rural area and those who live in the metropolitan statistical area.


NCHS UPDATES”STATS OF THE STATES” PAGE WITH LATEST FINAL DATA

March 26, 2021

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The CDC National Center for Health Statistics web page “Stats of the States” has been updated to include the latest state-based final data on selected vital statistics topics, including:

  • General fertility rates
  • Teen birth rates
  • Selected other maternal and infant health measures
  • Marriage & divorce rates
  • Leading causes of death
  • Other high profile causes of death.

The site’s map pages allow users to rank states from highest to lowest or vice versa.  This latest version of “Stats of the States” also includes two new topics:  Life expectancy by state and COVID-19 death rates by state (provisional data on a quarterly basis, through Q3 of 2020).  All death rates are adjusted for age.  Rates are featured in the maps because they best illustrate the impact of a specific measure on a particular state.

The main “Stats of the States” page can be accessed at:  https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/pressroom/stats_of_the_states.htm


QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Lung Cancer Death Rates by State — National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2018

September 11, 2020

In 2018, the age-adjusted lung cancer death rate in the United States was 34.8 per 100,000.

Twenty-one states had a higher lung cancer death rate than the national rate, 15 states and DC had lower death rates, and 14 states had rates that were not statistically different from the national rate.

Most states with higher death rates were in the Midwest or Southeast. The five states with the highest age-adjusted lung cancer death rates were Kentucky (53.5), West Virginia (50.8), Mississippi (49.6), Arkansas (47.4), and Oklahoma (46.8).

The five jurisdictions with the lowest lung cancer death rates were Utah (16.4), New Mexico (22.5), Colorado (23.0), DC (24.6), and California (25.0).

Sources: National Center for Health Statistics. National Vital Statistics System, mortality data. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/deaths.htm; CDC. CDC WONDER online database. https://wonder.cdc.gov/ucd-icd10.html.

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6936a8.htm


QuickStats: Percentage of Adults Aged 50–75 Years Who Received Colorectal Cancer Screening by Poverty Status and Year — National Health Interview Survey, United States, 2010 and 2018

July 24, 2020

The percentage of adults aged 50–75 years who received colorectal cancer tests or procedures increased from 58.7% in 2010 to 65.5% in 2018.

The percentage increased from 2010 to 2018 in all income groups: from 37.9% to 53.1% among poor, 47.9% to 56.7% among near poor, and 63.6% to 68.7% among not poor adults.

In both 2010 and 2018, the percentage of adults who received colorectal cancer screening was lowest among poor and highest among not poor adults.

Source: National Health Interview Survey, 2010 and 2018. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis.htm.

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6929a6.htm


Quickstats: Cancer and Heart Disease Death Rates Among Men and Women Aged 45–64 Years — United States, 1999–2018

May 29, 2020

The cancer death rate for both men and women aged 45–64 years declined steadily from 247.0 per 100,000 in 1999 to 194.9 in 2018 for men and from 204.1 to 166.3 for women.

The heart disease death rate for men declined from 1999 (235.7) to 2011 (183.5) but then increased to 192.9 in 2018. For women, the heart disease death rate declined from 1999 (96.8) to 2011 (74.9), increased through 2016 (80.3), and then leveled off.

In 2018, the cancer death rate for men aged 45–64 years was 1% higher than the heart disease death rate; for women, the cancer death rate was approximately twice the heart disease death rate.

Source: National Vital Statistics System, Mortality Data. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/deaths.htm.

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6921a4.htm


QuickStats: Percentage of Adults Aged 50–75 Years Who Met Colorectal Cancer (CRC) Screening Recommendations — National Health Interview Survey, United States, 2018

March 20, 2020

March is Colorectal Awareness Month. 67% of U.S. adults aged 50–75 years met the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations for colorectal cancer screening. Most persons (60.6%) had a colonoscopy in the past 10 years. Cancer screening leads to early detection, and early detection saves lives.

Source: National Health Interview Survey, 2018. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis.htm.

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6911a7.htm


Breast Cancer Screening Among Women by Nativity, Birthplace, and Length of Time in the United States

October 9, 2019

Questions for Lead Author Tainya Clarke, Health Statistician, of “Breast Cancer Screening Among Women by Nativity, Birthplace, and Length of Time in the United States.”

Q: Why did you decide to do a report on mammography screening among women by nativity?

TC: There is currently limited published research on how nativity, birthplace and/or lifetime in the US of ethnically diverse foreign-born women affect the likelihood of having a mammogram.


Q: How did the data vary by nativity, birthplace and lifetimes in the United States?

TC: Foreign-born women were less likely than US-born women to have ever had a mammogram. If evaluated on equal standing for selected sociodemographic factors e.g. income, education, marital status; foreign-born women residing in the United States for less than 25% of their lifetime were as likely as US-born women to have met the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendations, while those residing in the United States for 25% or more of their lifetime were more likely to do so than US-born women.


Q: Was there a specific finding in your report that surprised you?

TC: Yes, we found that after controlling for the sociodemographic factors examined in this research, foreign-born women from some countries such as Mexico, and Central America were more likely to have received mammogram compared with US-born women.


Q: How did you obtain this data for this report?

TC: The data was obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics NCHS and most of the information used are publicly available. Information such as country of birth and year of immigration may be obtained through the CDC’s Research Data Center (RDC) by submitting a proposal stating the reason for use.


Q: What is the take home message for this report?

TC: Length of lifetime in the US among foreign-born women have some positive affect on the likelihood of having a mammogram among foreign-born women. However, analyses indicate that the absence of some sociodemographic factors such as health insurance coverage, usual place for medical care, and poor standing in some factors such as educational attainment, seeing a doctor in the past year and income, also play a role in the likelihood of getting a mammogram among foreign-born women.


QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates from Female Breast Cancer by State — National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2017

July 12, 2019

In 2017, the overall age-adjusted death rate for female breast cancer was 19.9 per 100,000 population.

The highest death rates were in Mississippi (25.5), DC (24.3), and Louisiana (23.6).

The lowest death rates were in Hawaii (15.6), Alaska (16.3), New Hampshire (16.3), Wyoming (16.5), Rhode Island (16.6), Minnesota (16.7), South Dakota (17.3), Wisconsin (17.4), and Vermont (17.4).

Source: National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, mortality file. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/deaths.htm.

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6827a4.htm


2017 Final Deaths, Leading Causes of Death and Life Tables Reports Released

June 24, 2019

NCHS released a report that presents the final 2017 data on U.S. deaths, death rates, life expectancy, infant mortality, and trends, by selected characteristics such as age, sex, Hispanic origin and race, state of residence, and cause of death.

Key Findings:

  • In 2017, a total of 2,813,503 deaths were reported in the United States.
  • The age-adjusted death rate was 731.9 deaths per 100,000 U.S. standard population, an increase of 0.4% from the 2016 rate.
  • Life expectancy at birth was 78.6 years, a decrease of 0.1 year from the 2016 rate.
  • Life expectancy decreased from 2016 to 2017 for non-Hispanic white males (0.1 year) and non-Hispanic black males (0.1), and increased for non-Hispanic black females (0.1).
  • Age-specific death rates increased in 2017 from 2016 for age groups 25–34, 35–44, and 85 and over, and decreased for age groups under 1 and 45–54.
  • The 15 leading causes of death in 2017 remained the same as in 2016 although, two causes exchanged ranks.
  • Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, the 12th leading cause of death in 2016, became the 11th leading cause of death in 2017, while Septicemia, the 11th leading cause of death in 2016, became the 12th leading cause of death in 2017.
  • The infant mortality rate, 5.79 infant deaths per 1,000 live births in 2017, did not change significantly from the rate of 5.87 in 2016.

NCHS also released the 2017 U.S. Life Tables and Leading Causes of Death Reports.


QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates from Prostate Cancer, by Race/ Ethnicity — National Vital Statistics System, United States, 1999–2017

June 14, 2019

In 2017, the age-adjusted prostate cancer death rate among all males was 18.7 per 100,000, down from 31.3 in 1999.

During 1999–2017, non-Hispanic black males had the highest prostate cancer death rate. In 2017, the rate for non-Hispanic black males was 36.8, compared with 17.8 for non-Hispanic white males and 15.4 for Hispanic males.

Source: National Vital Statistics System, Mortality, 1999–2017. https://wonder.cdc.gov/ucd-icd10.html.

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6823a4.htm