QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates from Female Breast Cancer by State — National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2017

July 12, 2019

In 2017, the overall age-adjusted death rate for female breast cancer was 19.9 per 100,000 population.

The highest death rates were in Mississippi (25.5), DC (24.3), and Louisiana (23.6).

The lowest death rates were in Hawaii (15.6), Alaska (16.3), New Hampshire (16.3), Wyoming (16.5), Rhode Island (16.6), Minnesota (16.7), South Dakota (17.3), Wisconsin (17.4), and Vermont (17.4).

Source: National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, mortality file. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/deaths.htm.

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6827a4.htm

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2017 Final Deaths, Leading Causes of Death and Life Tables Reports Released

June 24, 2019

NCHS released a report that presents the final 2017 data on U.S. deaths, death rates, life expectancy, infant mortality, and trends, by selected characteristics such as age, sex, Hispanic origin and race, state of residence, and cause of death.

Key Findings:

  • In 2017, a total of 2,813,503 deaths were reported in the United States.
  • The age-adjusted death rate was 731.9 deaths per 100,000 U.S. standard population, an increase of 0.4% from the 2016 rate.
  • Life expectancy at birth was 78.6 years, a decrease of 0.1 year from the 2016 rate.
  • Life expectancy decreased from 2016 to 2017 for non-Hispanic white males (0.1 year) and non-Hispanic black males (0.1), and increased for non-Hispanic black females (0.1).
  • Age-specific death rates increased in 2017 from 2016 for age groups 25–34, 35–44, and 85 and over, and decreased for age groups under 1 and 45–54.
  • The 15 leading causes of death in 2017 remained the same as in 2016 although, two causes exchanged ranks.
  • Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, the 12th leading cause of death in 2016, became the 11th leading cause of death in 2017, while Septicemia, the 11th leading cause of death in 2016, became the 12th leading cause of death in 2017.
  • The infant mortality rate, 5.79 infant deaths per 1,000 live births in 2017, did not change significantly from the rate of 5.87 in 2016.

NCHS also released the 2017 U.S. Life Tables and Leading Causes of Death Reports.


QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates from Prostate Cancer, by Race/ Ethnicity — National Vital Statistics System, United States, 1999–2017

June 14, 2019

In 2017, the age-adjusted prostate cancer death rate among all males was 18.7 per 100,000, down from 31.3 in 1999.

During 1999–2017, non-Hispanic black males had the highest prostate cancer death rate. In 2017, the rate for non-Hispanic black males was 36.8, compared with 17.8 for non-Hispanic white males and 15.4 for Hispanic males.

Source: National Vital Statistics System, Mortality, 1999–2017. https://wonder.cdc.gov/ucd-icd10.html.

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6823a4.htm

 


Trends in Cancer and Heart Disease Death Rates Among Adults Aged 45–64: United States, 1999–2017

May 22, 2019

Questions for Sally Curtin, M.A., Statistician, and Lead Author of “Trends in Cancer and Heart Disease Death Rates Among Adults Aged 45–64: United States, 1999–2017.”

Q:  Why are death rates from cancer dropping steadily over time and why are death rates from heart disease starting to rise?

SC: The death rates are a reflection of a few things—the prevalence of a disease, how often is occurs in the population, as well as its treatment and survival.  As this is purely a statistical analysis, others can speak to the trends in these factors.


Q:  You write that cancer treatments might contribute to subsequent heart disease for patients and might help explain the increase in heart disease mortality.  Which cancer treatments are contributing to this subsequent heart disease among cancer patients?

SC: The cardiotoxicity of cancer treatments is just one way that these two seemingly disparate diseases are related.  It is well known in the medical community that radiation and many chemotherapies can increase the risk of subsequent heart disease. In our analysis, we didn’t examine which treatments might be contributing to heart disease risk.


Q:  Which groups are seeing the biggest decline in cancer death rates?

SC: Non-hispanic black men, who have the highest cancer death rates, also had the largest percentage decline over the period at 34%.  In general, the percentage declines were greater for men than for women.


Q:  Which groups are seeing the biggest increase in heart disease death rates?

SC: Non-hispanic white women had a 12% increase since 2009 in heart disease death rates, the greatest of all groups.  In total, middle-aged women had a 7% recent increase compared with 3% for middle-aged men.  Another interesting finding is that Hispanic women, who had the lowest heart disease death rates of all groups, had a 37% decline over the period, the only group to experience a decline over the entire period.


Q:  Does this analysis suggest that cancer will not overtake heart disease as the leading cause of death in the U.S., which many have been predicting?

SC:  The focus of this report was on the middle-age population, and Cancer is the leading cause of death in the 45-64 year old population as shown in this report, whereas heart disease remains the leading cause in the total population.  While we do not make predictions about what data trends will look like in the future, it is safe to say that if the recent upturn in heart disease continues, it is unlikely that this switch will occur anytime soon.

 


QuickStats: Percentage of U.S. Women Aged 50–74 Years Who Have Ever Had Breast Cancer by Race and Hispanic Origin

January 25, 2019

During 2015–2017, 5.3% of U.S. women aged 50–74 years had ever been told they had breast cancer.

Non-Hispanic white women were more likely to have ever been told they had breast cancer (6.1%) compared with Hispanic women (3.2%) and non-Hispanic black women (3.6%).

There was no significant difference in the prevalence of breast cancer between Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women.

Source: National Health Interview Survey, 2015–2017

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6803a6.htm


Trends in Liver Cancer Mortality Among Adults Aged 25 and Over in the United States, 2000-2016

July 17, 2018

Jiaquan Xu, M.D., NCHS Epidemiologist

Questions for Lead Author Jiaquan Xu, M.D., Epidemiologist, and Author of “Trends in Liver Cancer Mortality Among Adults Aged 25 and Over in the United States, 2000-2016

Q: What made you decide to focus on liver cancer deaths for this study?

JX: It was the dramatic rise in the death rate for liver cancer that caused me to want to look more deeply into various aspects of this marked change and produce this new report. I also wanted to offer state-by-state data for liver cancer mortality, so that the U.S. Public Health Community might have information that will help them in their important work throughout America. While we have seen decreases in death rates from many major causes — such as heart disease, cancer (all cancer combined), and stroke recently – liver cancer deaths stand out far away from the decreasing trends of these causes of death. To elaborate, the age-adjusted death rates for all cancer combined, have declined since 1990. Also, for the top six cancer death causes in 2016 (lung cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and liver cancer), the age-adjusted death rates decreased for four of them (lung, colorectal, breast, and prostate) and increased for two (liver cancer and pancreatic cancer) — with the liver cancer death rate increasing much faster than the pancreatic cancer death rate, since 2000.


Q: Was there a finding in your new report that you hadn’t expected and that really surprised you?

JX:  There actually are quite a few interesting results in this new analysis that surprised me. While there are some reports out there that show the increase of liver cancer mortality, we also know that the liver cancer death rate demonstrates a trend of continued rate increase during the period from 2000 through 2016 – which is the time span this report analyzed. The surprise is that the liver cancer death rate for men is between 2 and 2.5 times the rate for women aged 25 and over, during the period of 2000–2016. Within the four race/ethnic groups analyzed, the only decrease trend in liver cancer mortality observed, is for the non-Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islander (API) group. The rate increased for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic persons. Also the liver cancer death rates varied quite a bit by state, which is another surprising finding.


Q: What made you decide to focus on the age group of adults 25 years old and older?

JX: I had a number of reasons to focus on the liver cancer death rate for adults aged 25 and over. More than 99% of all deaths with liver cancer reported on the death certificate are for adults 25 years of age and over. It made sense to focus this analysis on the majority age group that dies from this cancer cause. We also know that age is a leading risk factor for the development of many types of cancer. Aging increases cancer risk. This is exactly what we see here in this new report. And the liver cancer death rate for older age groups is significantly higher than the rate for younger age groups throughout the period examined in this analysis.


Q: What differences or similarities did you see between or among various demographic groups in this analysis?

JX:  The differences among demographic groups is also what I found most surprising in this report. The liver cancer death rate for men aged 25 and over is between 2 and 2.5 times the rate for women. The liver cancer death rate varies by race/ethnic groups. The Non-Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islander (API) group have the highest liver cancer death rate among the four race/ethnic groups analyzed during 2000–2014. The rate for Hispanic adults surpassed the rate for non-Hispanic API and became the highest in 2016. The liver cancer death rate for non-Hispanic white adults was the lowest among the race/ethnic groups throughout the period (2000–2016).


Q: Why do you think there is such a vast difference among the states in death rates from liver cancer?

JX: The mortality data we analyzed does not provide any evidence itself to show the reason or reasons that could contribute to the variation of liver cancer death rates by state. In general, the majority of the liver cancer in the United States is often attributed to some potential risk factors such as metabolic disorders (including obesity, diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease), chronic Hepatitis C (HCV) infection, excessive consumption of alcohol, smoking, and chronic Hepatitis B (HBV) infection. If the number of people affected by those potential risk factors is different from one state to another, the liver cancer incidence rate and death rate would vary.


Q: What do you think is the reason for the growing increase in deaths from liver cancer in the United States?

JX: The mortality data we analyzed does not provide any evidence itself to show the reason or reasons that could contribute to the rising of the liver cancer death rate in this country. Some risk factors might contribute to the increase in liver cancer incidence rate and death rate. For example, some attribute the baby boomer generation’s higher hepatitis C virus infection rate than other adult age groups. Some have identified an increase in the obesity rate as another reason. Unfortunately, we can’t answer this question with our data, though it is an important question.


Q: What would you say is the take-home message of this report?

JX: I think the real take-home message of this Data Brief is what it can offer to the Public Health Community to learn about liver cancer mortality variance among different groups. The report shows that liver cancer mortality varies by sex, age, race/ethnic groups, and by state. Although the overall liver cancer death rate increased from 2000 to 2016, the rate for non-Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islander (API) decreased. The rate for adults aged 45–54 has decreased since 2012.


QuickStats: Breast Cancer Death Rates Among Women Aged 50–74 Years, by Race/Ethnicity — National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2006 and 2016

June 4, 2018

The U.S. death rate from breast cancer among all women aged 50–74 years decreased 15.1%, from 53.8 per 100,000 in 2006 to 45.7 in 2016.

In both 2006 and 2016, the death rate was higher among non-Hispanic black women compared with non-Hispanic white women and Hispanic women.

From 2006 to 2016, the death rate from breast cancer decreased for non-Hispanic white women from 54.6 per 100,000 to 46.2, for Hispanic women from 34.8 to 31.0, and for non-Hispanic black women from 71.7 to 64.1.

Source: National Vital Statistics System, 2006 and 2016. https://wonder.cdc.gov/ucd-icd10.html.

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/mm6721a8.htm