Vaccination Coverage Among Adults Aged 65 and Over: United States, 2015

June 28, 2017

Questions for Tina Norris, Ph.D., Health Statistician and Lead Author of “Vaccination Coverage Among Adults Aged 65 and Over: United States, 2015

Q:  Why did you conduct this study?

TN:  We produced this report because vaccination is an important preventive health measure. Older adults have greater susceptibility to—and complications from—disease, and so they stand to benefit greatly from vaccinations as a preventive health measure. This study explores how the percentage of adults aged 65 and over, who received these recommended vaccinations, varied by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and poverty status.


Q: What finding in your new study most surprised you and why?

TN:  While not unexpected, it was quite striking to see the overall variation in rates by vaccination type. We observed quite a range in the rates of vaccine coverage for influenza, pneumococcal disease, tetanus, and shingles. For example, more than two-thirds of adults aged 65 and over had an influenza vaccine in the past 12 months, while one-third had ever had a shingles vaccine.


Q:  Your report indicates you’ve examined receipt of vaccinations among community-dwelling adults aged 65 and over. What do you mean by “community-dwelling adults?”

TN:  By community-dwelling, we mean those individuals who are not living in any type of institutional setting (ex. nursing homes, hospitals, etc.).


Q:  What differences did you see among race and ethnic groups, and between the sexes?

TN:  We did see a number of significant differences in vaccination coverage among race groups and between the sexes. In terms of race, Non-Hispanic white adults were more likely than Hispanic and non-Hispanic black adults to have had an influenza vaccine in the past 12 months. Non-Hispanic white adults were more likely than Hispanic, non-Hispanic black, and non-Hispanic Asian adults to have had a tetanus vaccine in the past 10 years or to ever have had a vaccination for pneumococcal disease or shingles.

Vaccination also varied by sex. Among adults aged 65 and over, men were more likely than women to have had a tetanus vaccine in the past 10 years. However, men were less likely than women to have had a shingles vaccine at some point in the past.


Q:  What would you say is the take-home message of this report?

TN:  I think the take-home message of this report is that many adults aged 65 and over are not receiving recommended vaccinations. For example, two-thirds of adults never had a shingles vaccine, and nearly one-half did not have a tetanus vaccine in the past 10 years. We also see gaps in coverage for all four vaccinations—influenza, pneumococcal, tetanus, and shingles—by sex, age group, race and ethnicity, and poverty status.


Q:  Did you look at any titer-level testing for adults prior to vaccination receipt as a factor in vaccination coverage?

TN:  While titer-level testing is an interesting component in the strength of a body’s immune response to disease, titer-level testing was out-of-scope for this project.


Q:  Did your survey look at the different Medicare types of insurance as a factor in vaccination coverage for the population you studied?

TN:  No, insurance coverage was not included due to the cross-sectional nature of the survey and the long recall period for some of the vaccinations.  However, direct costs—and when the cost is incurred for vaccinations—have been shown to vary according to insurance coverage, and have been linked to financial burden for older adults.

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QuickStats: Percentage of Adults Aged 65 Years or Older Who Saw Selected Types of Health Professionals in the Past 12 Months, by Diagnosed Diabetes Status

May 22, 2017

In 2015, adults aged 65 years or older with diagnosed diabetes were more likely than adults without diagnosed diabetes to report seeing general doctors (92.3% compared with 86.7%); eye doctors (66.9% compared with 56.6%); physician specialists (51.5% compared with 45.5%); foot doctors (29.9% compared with 13.0%) and mental health professionals (6.3% compared with 4.5%) in the past 12 months.

Those with diabetes were less likely than those without diabetes to report seeing a dentist or dental hygienist in the past 12 months (54.5% compared with 65%).

Sourcehttps://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/66/wr/mm6619a10.htm


QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Percentage of Adults Aged 65 Years or Older by Number of 10 Selected Diagnosed Chronic Conditions and Poverty Status

February 27, 2017

For the period 2013–2015, 13% of adults aged 65 years or older reported having none of 10 selected diagnosed chronic conditions; 25% had one, 46% had two or three, and 16% had four or more of the conditions.

No differences by poverty status were observed among those who reported having two or three conditions, but those in the lowest income group (100% or less of the poverty threshold) were less likely to have none or only one of the chronic conditions compared with those in the highest income group (400% or more of the poverty threshold).

Those in the lowest income group also were more likely to have four or more conditions when compared with those in the highest income group (21% compared with 12%).

Source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/66/wr/mm6607a6.htm


QuickStats: Percentage of Adults Who Cannot or Find It Very Difficult to Stand or Be on Their Feet for About 2 Hours Without Using Special Equipment

December 2, 2016

A reported 10.2% of adults aged 18 years or older cannot, or find it very difficult to, stand or be on their feet for about 2 hours without using special equipment.

The percentage of adults who reported this difficulty increased with age: 2.9% of those aged 18–44 years, 11.8% of those aged 45–64 years, 19.1% of those 65–74 years, and 33.2% of those aged 75 years or older.

Overall, women were more likely (11.9%) than men (8.3%) to report this difficulty, and higher percentages were noted for women within each age group.

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/65/wr/mm6547a6.htm


Hospitalizations for Patients Aged 85 and Over in the United States, 2000–2010

January 14, 2015

From 2000 through 2010, the number of adults aged 85 and over in the United States rose 31%, from 4.2 million to 5.5 million, and in 2010, this age group represented almost 14% of the population aged 65 and over. It is estimated that by 2050, more than 21% of adults over age 65 will be aged 85 and over. Given this increase, adults aged 85 and over are likely to account for an increasing share of hospital utilization and costs in the coming years.

An NCHS report describes hospitalizations for adults aged 85 and over with comparisons to adults aged 65–74 and 75–84.

Key Findings from the Report:

  • In 2010, adults aged 85 and over accounted for only 2% of the U.S. population but 9% of hospital discharges.
  • From 2000 through 2010, the rate of hospitalizations for adults aged 85 and over declined from 605 to 553 hospitalizations per 1,000 population, a 9% decrease.
  • The rate of fractures and other injuries was higher for adults aged 85 and over (51 per 1,000 population) than for adults aged 65–74 (9 per 1,000 population) and 75–84 (23 per 1,000 population).
  • Adults aged 85 and over were less likely than those aged 65–74 and 75–84 to be discharged home and more likely to die in the hospital.

 


Residential Care Communities by Community Bed Size: United States, 2012

November 20, 2014

Residents in residential care, including assisted living, are individuals that cannot live independently, but generally do not require the skilled level of care provided by nursing homes. On any given day in 2012, there were 713,300 residents in 22,200 residential care communities nationwide. With the aging of the population, the numbers in residential care communities will likely increase, making them an important group within the long-term care population.

Using data from the first wave of the National Study of Long-Term Care Providers (NSLTCP), two new NCHS reports, Operating Characteristics of Residential Care Communities, by Community Bed Size: United States, 2012 and Characteristics of Residents Living in Residential Care Communities, by Community Bed Size: United States, 2012 describe characteristics of residents in residential care and compare selected characteristics by bed size.

State-level estimates for the characteristics presented in the reports are available from the NSLTCP website.

Key Findings from the Reports:

  • In 2012, nearly 6 in 10 residential care communities had 4–25 beds, but more than 7 in 10 residents lived in communities with more than 50 beds.
  • A higher percentage of communities with 26–50 beds and more than 50 beds were chain-affiliated and in operation for 10 years or more compared with communities with 4–25 beds.
  • Compared with communities with 4–25 beds and 26–50 beds, a higher percentage of communities with more than 50 beds screened for cognitive impairment or provided dementia-specific programs.
  • A higher percentage of communities with 26–50 beds and more than 50 beds provided therapeutic, hospice, mental health, and dental services compared with communities with 4–25 beds.
  • In 2012, 16% of residents living in residential care communities with 4–25 beds were under age 65 compared with 5% of residents living in communities with more than 50 beds.
  • A higher percentage of residents in communities with 4–25 beds were male, minority, and receiving Medicaid, compared with residents in communities with 26–50 beds and more than 50 beds.
  • The prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias was higher in communities with 4–25 beds (49%) than in communities with 26–50 beds (41%) and more than 50 beds (38%).
  • The percentages of residents needing assistance with bathing, dressing, toileting, transferring in or out of a bed, and eating were highest in communities with 4–25 beds.

 

 

 


Emergency Department Visits by Persons Aged 65 and Over

October 18, 2013

From 2000–2010, the number of persons in the United States aged 65 and over rose 15%, from 35.0 million to 40.3 million, and in 2010 this age group represented 13% of the population. It is estimated that by 2030, nearly one in five persons will be aged 65 and over. Given their growing proportion of the population, older individuals will comprise an increasing share of emergency department (ED) patients in the coming years. This is important because of the ED’s role in treating acute illness and injury in older adults and providing a pathway to these patients for hospital admission.

A new report from NCHS describes emergency department visits made by individuals aged 65 and over and compares age groups 65–74, 75–84, and 85 and over.

Key Findings from the Report:

  • In 2009–2010, a total of 19.6 million emergency department (ED) visits in the United States were made by persons aged 65 and over. The visit rate for this age group was 511 per 1,000 persons and increased with age.
  • The percentage of ED visits made by nursing home residents, patients arriving by ambulance, and patients admitted to the hospital increased with age.
  • Twenty-nine percent of ED visits by persons aged 65 and over were related to injury, and the percentage was higher among those aged 85 and over than among those aged 65–74 or 75–84.
  • The percentage of ED visits caused by falls increased with age.