Smoking Prevalence and Cessation Before and During Pregnancy

February 10, 2016

Smoking_Pregnancy

A new NCHS report presents findings on maternal smoking prevalence and cessation before and during pregnancy as collected on the 2003 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth, for a 46-state and District of Columbia reporting area, representing 95% of all births in the United States.

Findings:

  • About 1 in 10 women who gave birth in 2014 smoked during the 3 months before pregnancy (10.9%), and about one-quarter of these women (24.2%) did not smoke during pregnancy (i.e., quit before pregnancy).
  • The smoking rate at any time during pregnancy was 8.4%, with 20.6% of women who smoked in the first or second trimesters quitting by the third trimester.
  • Smoking during pregnancy was more prevalent for women aged 20–24 (13.0%) than for other ages, and by race and Hispanic origin, the highest rate was for non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native women (18%).

Sexual Behavior, Sexual Attraction, and Sexual Orientation Among Adults Aged 18–44 in the United States

January 12, 2016

An NCHS report provides national estimates of sexual behavior, sexual attraction, and sexual orientation among women and men aged 18–44 in the United States, based on the 2011–2013 National Survey of Family Growth.

Findings:

  • Regarding opposite-sex sexual behavior, 94.2% of women and 92% of men aged 18–44 had ever had vaginal intercourse.
  • 86.2% of women and 87.4% of men had ever had oral sex; and 35.9% of women and 42.3% of men had ever had
    anal sex.
  • Almost three times as many women (17.4%) reported any same-sex contact in their lifetime compared with men (6.2%) aged 18–44.
  • Feelings of attraction “only to the opposite sex” were more common for men (92.1%) compared with women
    (81%) aged 18–44. Among those aged 18–44, 92.3% of women and 95.1% of men said they were “heterosexual or straight”; 1.3% of women and 1.9% of men said they were “homosexual, gay, or lesbian”; 5.5% of women and 2.0% of men said they were bisexual; and 0.9% of women and 1% of men said “don’t know” or “refused” (i.e., “did not report”) on sexual orientation.
  • Sexual attraction and sexual orientation correlate closely but not completely with reports of sexual behavior. Sexual behavior, sexual attraction, and sexual orientation vary by age, marital or cohabiting status, education, and race and Hispanic origin.

Current Contraceptive Use and Variation by Selected Characteristics Among Women Aged 15–44: United States, 2011–2013

November 10, 2015

A new NCHS report describes current contraceptive use among women of childbearing age (ages 15–44) during 2011–2013. Current contraceptive use is defined as use during the month of interview, not for a specific act of sexual intercourse.

This report’s primary focus is describing patterns of contraceptive use among women who are currently using contraception, by social and demographic characteristics. Data from 2002 and 2006–2010 are presented for comparison.

Key Findings from the Report:

  • Among women currently using contraception, the most commonly used methods were the pill (25.9%, or 9.7 million women), female sterilization (25.1%, or 9.4 million women), the male condom (15.3%, or 5.8 million women), and long-acting reversible contraception (LARC)—intrauterine devices or contraceptive implants (11.6%, or 4.4 million women).
  • Differences in method use were seen across social and demographic characteristics. Comparisons between time points reveal some differences, such as higher use of LARC in 2011–2013 compared with earlier time points.

Sexual Activity, Contraceptive Use, and Childbearing of Teenagers Aged 15–19 in the United States

July 22, 2015

Monitoring sexual activity and contraceptive use among U.S. adolescents is important for understanding differences in their risk of pregnancy. In 2013, the U.S. birth rate for teenagers aged 15–19 dropped 57% from its peak in 1991, paralleling a decline in the teen pregnancy rate. But these rates are still higher than those in other developed countries.

Using data from the 1988 to 2011–2013 National Survey of Family Growth, this report provides trends and recent national estimates of sexual activity, contraceptive use, and childbearing among teenagers aged 15–19.

Key Findings from the Report:

  • In 2011–2013, 44% of female teenagers and 47% of male teenagers aged 15–19 had experienced sexual intercourse; the percentage has declined significantly, by 14% for female and 22% for male teenagers, over the past 25 years.
  • In the early teen years males were more likely than females to have had sexual intercourse. But the percentage of older teenagers who had sexual intercourse was similar for female and male teenagers.
  • In 2011–2013, 79% of female teenagers and 84% of male teenagers used a contraceptive method at first sexual intercourse.
  • The condom remained the most common contraceptive method used among teenagers.
  • Young women who did not use a method of contraception at first sexual intercourse were twice as likely to become teen mothers as those who used a method.

 


Three Decades of Nonmarital First Births Among Fathers Aged 15–44 in the United States

June 8, 2015

Nonmarital childbearing in the United States increased from the 1940s to the 1990s, peaked in 2007–2008, and declined in 2013. In 2013, the nonmarital birth rate was 44.8 births per 1,000 unmarried women aged 15–44.

Using data from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), a new NCHS report examines nonmarital first births reported by fathers aged 15–44. This report presents trends in nonmarital first births by father’s age at birth and Hispanic origin and race. Given increases in births occurring in cohabiting unions, first births within cohabitation are also examined.

Key Findings from the Report:

  • The percentage of fathers aged 15–44 whose first births were nonmarital was lower in the 2000s (36%) than in the previous 2 decades.
  • Fathers with first births in the 2000s were more likely to be in a nonmarital cohabiting union (24%) than those in the 1980s (19%).
  • The percentage of fathers with a nonmarital first birth over the past 3 decades has remained similar for Hispanic and non-Hispanic white men, but has declined for non-Hispanic black men (1980s, 77%; 2000s, 66%).
  • Fathers with nonmarital first births in the 2000s were less likely to be non-Hispanic black men (21%) than Hispanic (33%) or non-Hispanic white (39%) men.
  • Fathers with nonmarital first births in the 2000s were more likely to be older at the time of the birth (33%) than those in the previous 2 decades.

 


Interpregnancy Intervals in the United States: Data From the Birth Certificate and the National Survey of Family Growth

April 16, 2015

A new NCHS report looks at data on interpregnancy intervals (IPI), defined as the timing between a live birth and conception of a subsequent live birth, from a subset of jurisdictions that adopted the 2003 revised birth certificate.

The data contains births to residents of the 36 states and the District of Columbia (DC) that implemented the 2003 revision of the birth certificate as of January 1, 2011.

Because this information is available among revised jurisdictions only, the national representativeness of IPI and related patterns to the entire United States were assessed using the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG).

Key Findings from the Report:

  • Jurisdiction-specific median IPI ranged from 25 months (Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wisconsin) to 32 months (California) using birth certificate data.
  • Unmarried women had a higher percentage of long IPI from the birth certificate and NSFG compared with married women.
  • Consistent patterns in IPI distribution by data source were seen by age at delivery, marital status, education, number of previous live births, and Hispanic origin and race, with the exception of differences in IPI of 60 months or more among non-Hispanic black women and women with a bachelor’s degree or higher.

Trends in Long-acting Reversible Contraception Use Among U.S. Women Aged 15–44

February 24, 2015

Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), which include intrauterine devices (IUDs) and subdermal hormonal implants, are gaining popularity due to their high efficacy in preventing unintended pregnancies. IUD use was more common among U.S. women in the 1970s before concerns over safety led to a decline in use; however, since approval of a 5-year contraceptive implant in 1990 and redesigned IUDs, there has been growing interest in the use of LARCs for unintended pregnancy prevention.

Using data from the 1982, 1988, 1995, 2002, 2006–2010, and 2011–2013 National Survey of Family Growth, a new NCHS report examines trends in current LARC use among women aged 15–44 and describes patterns of use by age, race and Hispanic origin, and parity.

Key Findings from the Report:

  • Use of LARCs declined between 1982 and 1988, remained stable through 2002, and then increased nearly five-fold in the last decade among women aged 15–44, from 1.5% in 2002 to 7.2% in 2011–2013.
  • The percentage of women using LARCs has remained highest among women aged 25–34, with more than twice as many women aged 25–34 (11.1%) using LARCs in 2011–2013 compared with women aged 15–24 (5.0%) and aged 35–44 (5.3%).
  • After decreasing between 1982 and 1988 and remaining stable from 1988 through 1995, LARC-use patterns diverged among Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black women.
  • Women who have had at least one birth use LARCs at a higher rate compared with women who have had no previous births, and this difference has increased over time.

Current Contraceptive Status Among Women Aged 15–44: United States, 2011–2013

December 15, 2014

Nearly all women use contraception at some point in their lifetimes, although at any given time they may not be using contraception for reasons such as seeking pregnancy, being pregnant, or not being sexually active. Using data from the 2011–2013 National Survey of Family Growth on contraceptive use in the month of the interview, a new NCHS report provides a snapshot of current contraceptive status among women aged 15–44 in the United States.

In addition to describing use of any method by age, Hispanic origin and race, and educational attainment, patterns of use are described for the four most commonly used contraceptive methods: the oral contraceptive pill, female sterilization, the male condom, and long-acting reversible contraceptives, which include contraceptive implants and intrauterine devices.

Key Findings from the Report:

  • In 2011–2013, 61.7% of the 60.9 million women aged 15–44 in the United States were currently using contraception. The most common contraceptive methods currently being used were the pill (16.0%), female sterilization (15.5%), male condoms (9.4%), and long-acting reversible contraceptives (7.2%).
  • Use of long-acting reversible contraceptives was higher among women aged 25–34 (11.1%) compared with women aged 15–24 (5.0%) and aged 35–44 (5.3%).
  • Current condom use was similar across the three Hispanic origin and race groups shown in this report (about 9%).
  • Current use of female sterilization declined, and use of the pill increased with greater educational attainment. Use of long-acting reversible contraceptives was similar across education, about 8%–10%.

 


US Infertility Rates Drop Slightly

August 16, 2013

NCHS has released a new report that presents nationally representative estimates and trends for infertility and impaired fecundity—two measures of fertility problems—among women aged 15–44 in the United States. Data are also presented on a measure of infertility among men aged 15–44.

Infertility is defined as a lack of pregnancy in the 12 months prior to survey, despite having had unprotected sexual intercourse in each of those months with the same husband or partner. Impaired fecundity is defined as physical difficulty in either getting pregnant or carrying a pregnancy to live birth.

NCHS data are used to monitor the prevalence and correlates of infertility and to evaluate the use, efficacy, and safety of infertility services and treatments.

Key Findings from the Report: 

  • The percentage of married women aged 15–44 who were infertile fell from 8.5% in 1982 (2.4 million women) to 6.0% (1.5 million) in 2006–2010.
  • Impaired fecundity (trouble getting pregnant) among married women aged 15–44 increased from 11% in 1982 to 15% in 2002, but decreased to 12% in 2006–2010. Among all women, 11% had impaired fecundity in 2006–2010.
  • Both infertility and impaired fecundity remain closely associated with age for nulliparous (childless) women. Among married, childless women aged 35–44, the percentage infertile declined from 44% in 1982 to 27% in 2006–2010, reflecting greater delays in childbearing over this period.
  • Among married women in 2006–2010, non-Hispanic black women were more likely to be infertile than non-Hispanic white women.
  • Some form of infertility (either subfertility or nonsurgical sterility) was reported by 9.4% of men aged 15–44 and 12% of men aged 25–44 in 2006–2010, similar to levels seen in 2002.

Cesarean Delivery Rates Starting to Stabilize

July 8, 2013

Cesarean delivery, by gestational age: United States, final 1996–2010 and preliminary 2011

The total U.S. cesarean delivery rate reached a high of 32.9% of all births in 2009, rising 60% from the most recent low of 20.7 in 1996.  Since 2009, the U.S. cesarean delivery rate has not increased. NCHS’s report explores cesarean delivery rates by gestational age for 1996–2011, focusing on 2009–2011.  Analysis is limited to singleton births; multiple births are nearly 2.5 times more likely to be delivered by cesarean.

Key Findings from the Report:

  • Cesarean delivery rates decreased more than 5% among births at 38 weeks of gestation, but increased 4% among births at 39 weeks.
  • Decreases in cesarean delivery rates for births at 38 weeks occurred for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic women, as well as for all maternal age groups.
  • Increases in cesarean delivery rates for births at 39 weeks occurred among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic women, as well as for all maternal age groups.
  • The cesarean delivery rate at 38 weeks decreased in 30 states; the cesarean delivery rate at 39 weeks increased in 23 states.