QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Rates of Firearm-Related Homicide by Race, Hispanic Origin, and Sex — National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2019

October 22, 2021

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In 2019, among males, non-Hispanic Black males had the highest age-adjusted rate of firearm-related homicide at 34.9 per 100,000 population and non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander males had the lowest rate (1.6).

Among females, non-Hispanic Black females had the highest rate (4.1) and non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander females had the lowest rate (0.5).

Males had higher rates than females across all race and Hispanic origin groups.

Source: National Vital Statistics System, Mortality Data, 2019. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/deaths.htm

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7042a6.htm


QuickStats: Percentage of Adults Aged 20 Years or Older Who Consumed Fruit on a Given Day, by Race and Hispanic Origin — United States, 2015–2018

September 10, 2021

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During 2015–2018, on a given day, 67.3% of adults aged ≥20 years consumed any fruit; 29.7% consumed citrus, melons, or berries; 47.5% consumed other whole fruits; and 30.8% consumed 100% fruit juice.

Non-Hispanic Asian (76.5%) and Hispanic adults (72.2%) were more likely to consume any fruit on a given day than non-Hispanic White (66.3%) and non-Hispanic Black adults (63.7%).

Non-Hispanic Black adults were least likely to consume citrus, melons, or berries (20.5%) and other whole fruit (35.6%), and non-Hispanic Asian adults were most likely to consume other whole fruits (60.1%).

A higher percentage of non-Hispanic Black (37.7%) and Hispanic (37.5%) adults consumed 100% fruit juice compared with non-Hispanic White (28.5%) and non-Hispanic Asian (28.9%) adults.

Source: NCHS Data Brief, no. 397, National Center for Health Statistics. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db397-H.pdf

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7036a5.htm


QuickStats: Percentage of Adults Aged 18–26 Years Who Ever Received a Human Papillomavirus Vaccine, by Race and Hispanic Origin§ and Sex

May 28, 2021

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Overall, in 2019, 47.0% of adults aged 18–26 years had ever received an HPV vaccination.

Non-Hispanic White adults (49.7%) were more likely than Hispanic adults (40.6%) to have ever received an HPV vaccination; differences between non-Hispanic Black adults (45.8%) and the other two groups were not statistically significant.

Overall, women were more likely than men to have been vaccinated (56.6% versus 37.2%), and this pattern was seen for non-Hispanic White women and men (60.6% versus 38.6%) and for Hispanic women and men (50.2% versus 30.8%).

However, the difference between non-Hispanic Black women and men (48.9% versus 43.0%) was not statistically significant.

Source: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey, 2019. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis.htm

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7021a5.htm


Total Fertility Rates, by Maternal Educational Attainment and Race and Hispanic Origin: United States, 2019

May 12, 2021

NVSR70_5_cover1Questions for Brady Hamilton, Health Statistician and Lead Author of “Total Fertility Rates, by Maternal Educational Attainment and Race and Hispanic Origin: United States, 2019.”

Q: What is the difference between general fertility rates and total fertility rates?

BH: The general fertility rate is the number of births per 1,000 females aged 15–44 in a given year, whereas, the total fertility rate is the estimated number of births that a group of 1,000 women would have over their lifetimes, based on age-specific birth rates in a given year.


Q: Why did you decide to compare educational attainment with total fertility rates?

BH: Educational attainment is considered an important measure of socioeconomic status and can be useful in interpreting patterns and differences in fertility behavior both overall and among population groups. Maternal education has been shown to be associated with contraceptive use, the timing of childbearing, and the total number of children women have in their lifetimes. I wanted to examine the association between educational attainment and the expected number of births for women using the latest available vital statistics birth data (2019) from NCHS.


Q: How did the total fertility rates differ by educational attainment?

BH: Total fertility rates decreased as level of education increased from women with a 12th grade education or less through an associate’s and bachelor’s degree, and then increased from bachelor’s degree through a doctorate or professional degree, although the increase from master’s to doctorate or professional degree was not statistically significant.


Q: How did the total fertility rates by educational attainment differ by race?

BH: The patterns in and levels of the total fertility rates by educational attainment differed across the three race and Hispanic-origin groups shown in the report.

Total fertility rates generally declined from the lowest educational level through a bachelor’s degree for non-Hispanic white women, and through an associate’s degree for Hispanic women, and then generally rose for both groups for women with advanced degrees. Rates for non-Hispanic black women declined by educational level through a master’s degree.

Total fertility rates for non-Hispanic black and Hispanic women with some college credit or less were generally higher than the rates for non-Hispanic white women, but TFRs for non-Hispanic black and Hispanic women with a master’s degree or more were generally lower than the rates for non-Hispanic white women


Q: Was there a specific finding in the data that surprised you from this report?

BH: Yes, the span of the range in the total fertility rates was surprising, from the low of 1,284 for women with a bachelor’s degree to the high of 2,791 for women with a 12th grade education or less. To put this difference in perspective, a woman with a 12th grade education or less would be expected to have more than one additional birth compared with a woman with a bachelor’s degree.


Race and Hispanic-origin Disparities in Underlying Medical Conditions Associated With Severe COVID-19 Illness: U.S. Adults, 2015–2018

April 28, 2021

Figure_02192021A new NCHS report calculates the prevalence of selected conditions by race and Hispanic origin among U.S. adults (aged 20 and over) during 2015–2018.

Data were used from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Conditions included asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and heart disease based on self-report; and obesity, severe obesity, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, smoking, and hypertension based on physical measurements

Findings:

  • An estimated 180.3 million (76.2%) U.S. adults had at least one condition during 2015–2018.
  • Approximately 86.4% of non-Hispanic black adults had at least one condition, 58.5% had at least two conditions, and 29% had at least three conditions; these prevalence estimates were significantly higher than among other race and Hispanic-origin groups.
  • Compared with non-Hispanic white adults, Hispanic adults had higher rates of obesity and diabetes.
  • Non-Hispanic Asian adults had lower rates of at least one condition, but higher rates of diabetes compared with non-Hispanic white adults.
  • Non-Hispanic black women were more likely to have multiple conditions, obesity, severe obesity, diabetes, and hypertension compared with non-Hispanic white women.
  • Non-Hispanic black men were more likely to have one or more conditions and hypertension compared with non-Hispanic white men.
  • Hispanic men were more likely to have diabetes compared with non-Hispanic white men.

QuickStats: Trends in Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Nonsmoking Adults, by Race† and Hispanic Origin — National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, United States, 2009–2018

February 12, 2021

The percentage of nonsmoking adults exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) declined from 27.7% in 2009–2010 to 20.7% in 2017–2018.

During this period, decreasing trends in the percentage of persons with SHS exposure also were observed for nonsmoking non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic adults.

There was no significant decline in the percentage of persons with exposure for nonsmoking non-Hispanic Asian adults from 2011–2012 to 2017–2018.

The percentage of persons with SHS exposure was consistently higher for nonsmoking non-Hispanic Black adults throughout the period.

During 2017–2018, 41.5% of nonsmoking non-Hispanic Black adults were exposed to SHS compared with 22.7% non-Hispanic Asian, 17.8% non-Hispanic White, and 16.2% nonsmoking Hispanic adults.

Source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7006a6.htm


Fact or Fiction: The gap in life expectancy between the black and white populations shrinks as people age

November 19, 2020

https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/pressroom/videos/2020/19november2020/FOF_19November_2020.htm


Racial and Ethnic Differences in Mortality Rate of Infants Born to Teen Mothers: United States, 2017–2018

July 31, 2020

Questions for Ashley Woodall, Health Statistician and Lead Author of “Racial and Ethnic Differences in Mortality Rate of Infants Born to Teen Mothers: United States, 2017–2018.”

Q: Why did you decide to focus on teenagers for this report?

AW: There has not been much research on infant mortality using national data that focuses on specific maternal age groups. Teenagers are an age group of particular interest because infants born to teenagers have higher infant mortality rates compared with infants born to women in older age groups. Consequently, we wanted to explore the recent patterns in infant mortality for teenagers in the United States.


Q: Can you summarize some of the findings?

AW: In 2017–2018, infants born to teenagers aged 15–19 had the highest rate of mortality (8.77 deaths per 1,000 live births) compared with infants born to women aged 20 and over. Among teenagers, infants of non-Hispanic black females had the highest infant mortality rate (12.54) compared with non-Hispanic white (8.43) and Hispanic (6.47) females. Among the five leading causes of infant death, the largest racial and ethnic difference in mortality rates was found for preterm- and low-birthweight-related causes, where rates were two to three times higher for infants of non-Hispanic black teenagers (284.31 per 100,000 live births) than infants of non-Hispanic white (119.18) and Hispanic (94.44) teenagers.


Q: Was there a specific finding in the data that surprised you from this report?

AW: We were surprised by the large racial and ethnic disparity in deaths for preterm- and low-birthweight-related causes. This finding suggests that preterm birth and low birthweight are significant contributing factors for death among infants born to non-Hispanic black teenagers.


Q: Can you explain the difference between total infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality rates?

AW: Infant mortality is the death of a baby before his or her first birthday. It is calculated by dividing the number of infant deaths during a calendar year by the number of live births reported in the same year. It is expressed as the number of infant deaths per 1,000 live births. Neonatal mortality rate is the death of a baby during the first 27 days after birth, per 1,000 live births. Postneonatal mortality rate is the death of a baby between 28 days to under 1 year after birth, per 1,000 live births.


Q: What is the take home message for this report?

AW: The different mortality patterns seen among infants born to teenage mothers illustrate the racial and ethnic disparities in infant mortality and suggest that preterm birth and low birthweight are major public health concerns for infants born to non-Hispanic black teenagers.


QuickStats: Percentage of Adults Who Volunteered or Worked in a Hospital, Medical Clinic, Doctor’s Office, Dentist’s Office, Nursing Home, or Some Other Health Care Facility by Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin — National Health Interview Survey, United States, 2016–2018

July 17, 2020

During 2016–2018, women aged 18 years or older were more likely to volunteer or work in a hospital, medical clinic, doctor’s office, dentist’s office, nursing home, or some other health care facility (health care settings) than were men (12.3% compared with 5.2%).

Non-Hispanic black (15.8%), Asian (12.8%), and white women (12.3%) were more likely to volunteer or work in health care settings than were Hispanic women (9.6%).

Non-Hispanic Asian men (7.6%) were more likely to volunteer or work in health care settings than were black (6.0%), white (5.3%), and Hispanic men (3.8%).

Source: National Health Interview Survey, 2016–2018 data. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis.htm.

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6928a7.htm

 


Infant Mortality in the United States, 2018: Data From the Period Linked Birth/Infant Death File

July 16, 2020

Questions for Danielle Ely, Health Statistician and Lead Author of “Infant Mortality in the United States, 2018: Data From the Period Linked Birth/Infant Death File.”

Q: Why does NCHS conduct studies on infant mortality?

DE: NCHS collects data from U.S. jurisdictions on infant deaths to provide national statistics on infant mortality. Infant mortality is considered a key public health indicator for a country.


Q: Can you explain what the Linked Birth/Infant Death File is?

DE: The linked file consists of infant death information linked with the birth certificate information for infants under 1 year of age. Individual birth and death records are selected from their respective files and linked into a single statistical record, thereby establishing a national linked record file. The linked birth/infant death data set is the preferred source for examining infant mortality by race and Hispanic origin. Infant mortality rates by race and Hispanic origin are more accurately measured from the birth certificate compared with the death certificate.


Q: Can you summarize how the infant mortality data varied?

DE: The U.S. infant mortality rate was 5.67 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, lower than the rate of 5.79 in 2017 and an historic low. The mortality rate declined in 2018 for infants of Hispanic women compared with the 2017 rate; changes in rates for other race and Hispanic-origin groups were not statistically significant. The 2018 infant mortality rate for infants of non-Hispanic black women (10.75) was more than twice as high as that for infants of non-Hispanic white (4.63), non-Hispanic Asian (3.63), and Hispanic women (4.86). Infants born very preterm (less than 28 weeks of gestation) had the highest mortality rate (382.20), 186 times as high as that for infants born at term (37–41 weeks of gestation) (2.05). Infant mortality rates by state for 2018 ranged from a low of 3.50 in New Hampshire to a high of 8.41 in Mississippi.


Q: What is the take home message for this report?

DE: Although the infant mortality rate continues to slowly decline, some groups have consistently higher rates than others (for example, by maternal race and Hispanic origin, infants of non-Hispanic black, American Indian or Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander women have higher rates than infants of non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic Asian, and Hispanic women). This information can further our understanding of current infant mortality trends and provide information on where improvements can be made.


Q: Any predictions for 2019 infant mortality data?

DE: We do not predict what will happen for the infant mortality rate in future years. Provisional estimates for each quarter can be found in the Vital Statistics Rapid Release Quarterly Provisional Estimates at https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/vsrr/infant-mortality-dashboard.htm. These data show a slight increase in the 2019 quarter 2 estimates to 5.69 infant deaths per 1,000 live births.  Note that this estimate may be revised when the 2018 quarter 3 estimate becomes available.