Prescription Drug Use in the United States, 2015–2016

May 8, 2019

Questions for Lead Author Crescent Martin, Health Statistician, of “Prescription Drug Use in the United States, 2015–2016.”

Q: Why did you decide to do a report on prescription drug use in the United States?

CM: We wanted to update a previous report that found an increase in prescription drug use from 1999–2000 through 2007–2008, using the latest available data from 2015–2016.


Q: Do you have data for the years between 2007-2008 and 2015-2016 on prescription drug use?

CM: Yes, the trends analysis (shown in Figure 4) includes an estimate for each two-year survey cycle from 2007–2008 through 2015–2016 (i.e. 5 time points over the decade.)


Q: How did the data vary by age, sex and race?

CM: The percentage of the population that used prescription drugs increased with age among every group we looked at: overall, among both males and females, and among each race and Hispanic origin group.

By sex, prescription drug use was higher among females than males, though this overall difference was primarily driven by the difference observed among adults aged 20–59. Among children age 11 and younger, a higher percentage of boys than girls used prescription drugs.

Prescription drug use was highest among Non-Hispanic white persons, followed by non-Hispanic black persons, and was lowest among non-Hispanic Asian and Hispanic persons. This pattern also varied by age, and among adults aged 60 and over no differences were observed between race and Hispanic origin groups.


Q: Was there a specific finding in your report that surprised you?

CM: I was interested to see the different types of prescription drugs that were most commonly used within each age group. The most commonly used types of prescription drugs were bronchodilators (such as asthma rescue inhalers) for children aged 11 and under, central nervous system stimulants for adolescents aged 12-19, antidepressants for adults aged 20-59, and cholesterol-lowering drugs for adults aged 60 and over.

The top drug type for each age group was actually the same drug type that was most commonly used in 2007–2008, from the earlier report.


Q: What is the take home message for this report?

CM: Overall, almost half of the U.S. population took one or more prescription drugs in the past 30 days during 2015–2016.

When we look at trends over time and take into account how the age distribution of the US population has gotten older over this decade, we see a decline in the use of prescription drugs from 2007–2008 through 2015–2016.

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Service Provision, Hospitalizations, and Chronic Conditions in Adult Day Services Centers: Findings From the 2016 National Study of Long-Term Care Providers

April 30, 2019

Questions for Lead Author Christine Caffrey, Health Statistician, of “Service Provision, Hospitalizations, and Chronic Conditions in Adult Day Services Centers: Findings From the 2016 National Study of Long-Term Care Providers.”

Q: Why did you decide to do a report on hospitalizations and chronic conditions by service provision in adult day services centers?

CF: A primary goal of adult day services centers is to help individuals remain living in the community and preventing or delaying institutionalization.  As part of this goal, adult day services centers offer a variety of services, including mental health, social work, therapeutic, dietary and nutritional, and skilled nursing services.

Hospitalizations among older adults are a strong predictor of future institutionalization or nursing home admission, and are associated with health and disability declines, lower quality of life, and greater health care costs. The increased risks associated with hospitalizations are of particular concern to adult day services centers, and reducing hospitalizations and readmissions is a main goal for them.  Often adult day services centers have participants with diverse health needs, including common chronic conditions, such as Alzheimer disease and other dementias, depression, diabetes, and heart disease.  These chronic conditions have been found to be associated with hospitalizations and readmissions in long-term care settings.

Having a participant case mix with hospitalizations and several different chronic conditions may increase the need to provide a wider variety of services. Despite adult day services centers main goals of reducing hospitalizations and readmissions and managing chronic conditions among participants through service provision, national estimates on the relationship between service provision and hospitalizations and chronic conditions are limited. This report fills this gap by presenting 2016 national estimates of the percentages of hospitalizations in the past 90 days and the number of chronic conditions among ADSCs, by service provision.


Q: How did the data vary by service provision?

CF: Overall, more than one-half of adult day services centers (52.6%) provided all five services, about 37.0% of centers provided one to four of the five services, and approximately one-tenth of centers (10.2%) provided none of the five services.  Nearly one-tenth (8.4%) of adult day services centers provided all of the five services with employees and 10.3% provided all of the five services by arrangement or referral.  The prevalence of hospitalizations varied by service provision.

Almost three-fourths of adult day services centers that provided all five services (74.3%) reported at least one hospitalization in the past 90 days compared to almost one-third (31.5%) of adult day services centers that provided none of the five services.  Among adult day services centers that provided all five services with employees, 81.7% had hospitalizations compared with 59.4% of centers that provided all five services by arrangement or referral.  The number of chronic conditions in an adult day services center also varied by service provision.  Across adult day services centers that provided all five services, 17.5% had zero to three of the four chronic conditions in their center and 82.5% had all four conditions.  In adult day services centers that provided none of the five services, 70.6% had zero to three of the four chronic conditions in their center and 29.4% had all four conditions.

Among adult day services centers that provided all five services with employees, 3.8% had zero to three of the four chronic conditions in their center and 96.2% had all four conditions.  In adult day services centers that provided all five services by arrangement or referral, 36.3% had zero to three of the four chronic conditions in their center and 63.7% had all four conditions.


Q: Was there a specific finding in your report that surprised you?

CF: That adult day services center with greater levels of participant needs, as indicated by increased hospitalizations and the number of chronic conditions, are more likely to provide a greater number of services in general, and these services are more often provided by employees and not solely by arrangement or referral.


Q: What is the take home message for this report?

CF: This report demonstrates that adult day services centers with greater levels of participant needs, as indicated by increased hospitalizations and the number of chronic conditions, are more likely to provide a greater number of services in general and these services are more often provided by employees and not solely by arrangement or referral. The level of participant needs, as indicated by hospitalizations, and chronic conditions among participants, were lower in adult day services centers that provided select services by arrangement or referrals and in adult day services centers that did not provide select services.


QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Percentages of Adults Aged 18 Years or Older Who Were Told in the Past 12 Months by a Doctor or Health Professional That They Had Sinusitis by Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin — National Health Interview Survey, 2017

April 19, 2019

Among adults aged 18 years or older, women (15%) were more likely than men (8.8%) to have been told by a doctor or health professional in the past 12 months that they had sinusitis.

Among men, non-Hispanic white men (10.1%) were more likely than both non-Hispanic black (7.0%) and Hispanic (5.8%) men to have received a diagnosis of sinusitis.

Among women, non-Hispanic white women (17.2%) were most likely to have received a diagnosis of sinusitis, followed by non-Hispanic black (14.3%) and Hispanic (10.2%) women.

Source: Tables of Summary Health Statistics, 2017. https://ftp.cdc.gov/pub/Health_Statistics/NCHS/NHIS/SHS/2017_SHS_Table_A-2.pdfCdc-pdf.

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6815a7.htm


QuickStats: Percentage of Persons in Families Having Problems Paying Medical Bills in the Past 12 Months by Age Group

April 12, 2019

From 2011 to 2017, the overall percentage of persons who were in U.S. families having problems paying medical bills in the past 12 months decreased from 19.7% to 14.6%.

Similar trends were observed for all age groups, with a decrease from 23.2% to 16.8% for children aged 18 years or younger, from 20.6% to 15.5% for adults aged 18–64 years, and from 8.9% to 7.7% for those aged 65 years or older.

SOURCE: National Health Interview Survey, 2011–2017 data. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis.htm.

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6814a6.htm


QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Percentages of Adults Aged 18 Years or Older Without a Usual Place of Health Care by Region

April 5, 2019

 

 

 

Among adults aged 18 years or older, 13.9% were without a usual place of health care in 2017.

Adults in the South (16.4%) were more likely be without a usual place of health care compared with adults in the West (14.4%) and Midwest (12.7%). Adults in the Northeast (9.4%) were least likely to be without a usual place of health care.

Source: Tables of Summary Health Statistics, 2017. https://ftp.cdc.gov/pub/Health_Statistics/NCHS/NHIS/SHS/2017_SHS_Table_A-16.pdf.

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6813a5.htm


April is Alcohol Awareness Month

March 29, 2019

Abuse of alcohol can lead to a variety of health problems, including chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, which is the 11th leading cause of death in the United States. In 2017, 41,743 Americans died of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis¹. Nearly two-thirds of those deaths were to men. Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis is the 10th leading killer among American men.

According to National Health Interview Survey data collected from January to September 2018, nearly one in three men in the U.S. had at least one “heavy drinking day” in the past year, compared with one in five women. While this heavy drinking trend has remained stable among men since 2006, it has increased among women over the same period.

Regionally, the highest death rates from chronic liver disease and cirrhosis are among states located west of the Mississippi River, with New Mexico’s rate the highest of any state. New Mexico’s death rate from chronic liver disease and cirrhosis is more than twice as high as the rate for Nevada, which has the 11th highest death rate in the country, and three times as high as the rate for Delaware.

Nationally, the death rate from chronic liver disease and cirrhosis reached the highest level in several decades in 2017, at 10.9 deaths per 100,000 population – nearly 24% higher than it was in 2006.

¹CDC WONDER Detailed Mortality File, 2017


QuickStats: Percentage of Adults Who Met Federal Guidelines for Aerobic Physical Activity Through Leisure-Time Activity by Race/Ethnicity — National Health Interview Survey, 2008–2017

March 29, 2019

During 2008–2017, the percentage of adults aged 18 years or older who met federal guidelines for aerobic physical activity through leisure-time activity increased from 43.5% in 2008 to 54.1% in 2017.

This pattern was seen in each race/ethnicity group shown, with an increase from 33.4% to 45.0% for Hispanic, 34.1% to 44.3% for non-Hispanic black, and 46.0% to 58.6% for non-Hispanic white adults.

Throughout the period, non-Hispanic white adults were more likely to meet the guidelines through leisure-time activity than were non-Hispanic black and Hispanic adults.

Source: National Health Interview Survey, 2008–2017. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis/index.htm.

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6812a6.htm