Dietary Supplement Use Among Adults: United States, 2017–2018

February 25, 2021

NCHS releases a new report that describes recent prevalence estimates for dietary supplement use among U.S. adults, the distribution of the number of dietary supplements used, and the most common types of dietary supplements used.

Trends in dietary supplement use from 2007–2008 through 2017–2018 are also reported.

Findings:

  • Among U.S. adults aged 20 and over, 57.6% used any dietary supplement in the past 30 days, and use was higher among women (63.8%) than men (50.8%).
  • Dietary supplement use increased with age, overall and in both sexes, and was highest among women aged 60 and over (80.2%).
  • The use of two, three, and four or more dietary supplements increased with age, while the percentage of adults not using any dietary supplement decreased with age.
  • The most common types of dietary supplements used by all age groups were multivitamin-mineral supplements, followed by vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acid supplements.
  • From 2007–2008 through 2017–2018, the prevalence of dietary supplement use increased in all age groups among U.S. adults.

QuickStats: Trends in Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Nonsmoking Adults, by Race† and Hispanic Origin — National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, United States, 2009–2018

February 12, 2021

The percentage of nonsmoking adults exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) declined from 27.7% in 2009–2010 to 20.7% in 2017–2018.

During this period, decreasing trends in the percentage of persons with SHS exposure also were observed for nonsmoking non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic adults.

There was no significant decline in the percentage of persons with exposure for nonsmoking non-Hispanic Asian adults from 2011–2012 to 2017–2018.

The percentage of persons with SHS exposure was consistently higher for nonsmoking non-Hispanic Black adults throughout the period.

During 2017–2018, 41.5% of nonsmoking non-Hispanic Black adults were exposed to SHS compared with 22.7% non-Hispanic Asian, 17.8% non-Hispanic White, and 16.2% nonsmoking Hispanic adults.

Source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7006a6.htm


PODCAST: Secondhand Smoke Exposure among U.S. Adults

February 5, 2021

STATCAST, FEBRUARY 2021: DISCUSSION WITH DEBRA BRODY, AN EPIDEMIOLOGIST WITH NHANES, ABOUT SECONDHAND SMOKE EXPOSURE AMONG ADULTS.

https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/pressroom/podcasts/2021/20210205/20210205.htm

TRANSCRIPT

HOST:  Today we welcome Debra Brody, an epidemiologist with NCHS’s National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, or NHANES.  Debra has been studying trends and exposure to secondhand smoke in America and has just authored a new study focusing on secondhand smoke exposure among adults in the U.S.

HOST:  First off, what are some of the reasons why secondhand smoke is a public health threat and what did you set out to accomplish with this new study?

DEBRA BRODY:  Well, I want to begin by defining secondhand smoke and that is the smoke that is breathed in involuntarily from the burning tobacco of smokers.  And because it contains toxic chemicals, it has many of the same harmful health risks to non-smokers as tobacco smoke has to active smokers.  And this would include increased risks of respiratory diseases, heart disease, stroke, and lung cancer.  So the bottom line is that no amount of exposure to secondhand smoke is safe. And while we can not determine the exact source of exposure, our goal was to assess the current proportion of the non-smoking adult population in the U.S. who are exposed to the burning smoke of others.

HOST:  So how does NHANES measure secondhand smoke?

DEBRA BRODY:   So NHANES is a national survey that assesses the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the U.S., and the survey is unique in that it combines interviews with physical exams and laboratory testing. So as part of the laboratory component, we draw blood from our participants and measure cotinine levels.  Cotinine is a metabolite of the chemical nicotine that’s found in tobacco smoke.  And cotinine provides a good measurement of the amount of nicotine a person has in his or her body due to tobacco inhalation.  So persons who don’t smoke should not have any cotinine in their system unless they breathe in smoke from other people’s tobacco.  In this report, secondhand smoke is based on having a certain level of cotinine in the blood, indicating current exposure to tobacco smoke.

HOST:  With the growth of E-cigarettes, is there a way to measure secondhand smoke with that?

DEBRA BRODY:   That’s a good question.  So we can’t distinguish from the cotinine level the source of the tobacco product.  So we don’t know whether it’s based on cigarette smoking or cigar, pipe, or hookas or possibly even from the vapor from E-cigarettes.

HOST:  I see.  So how many folks participated in this study?

DEBRA BRODY:  Our report focuses on data from non-smoking adults during the period of 2015 to 2018, and in this four-year period there were about 7,600 non-smoking adults who were 18 years and older who had blood drawn during the examination and answered questions about their smoking status and their current tobacco use.  But I want to mention NHANES is a population-based survey and is nationally representative of all adults in the U.S.

HOST:  So what’s the bottom line here?  How prevalent is secondhand exposure in the adult population?

DEBRA BRODY:  So we found that 20.8% or about one in five non-smoking adults 18 years and older were exposed to secondhand smoke.  Overall, we found the percentage of secondhand smoke exposure was similar for men and women.

HOST:  So how has this changed over time?

DEBRA BRODY:   If we look back to when we first measured cotinine in the survey – and that was in the late 80’s – and at that time close to 90% of all Americans were exposed to secondhand smoke.  Now, in this report we examine the change in exposure prevalences over a 10-year period. So that would be since 2009-2010.  Across the 10-year timeframe we observed a downward trend overall.

HOST:  So this isn’t part of your study of course but you mentioned that when you originally started measuring this back in the late 80’s, ninety percent of adults were exposed. I trust that what has happened is we’ve seen the results since then of all the smoke-free establishments?

DEBRA BRODY:    Yeah that’s really a good question.  So exposure has steadily decreased in the U.S. obviously with increases in regulatory oversight concerning smoke-free indoor air quality.  And then individual policies regarding smoking in homes and cars, and then declines in smoking, particularly cigarette smoking overall.

HOST:  So are your findings consistent with other studies on secondhand smoke?

DEBRA BRODY:   As I mentioned, NHANES is a national survey representing the U.S. population and has been measuring secondhand smoke exposure using a biomarker – that is cotinine – for more than 40 years.  While there are some other surveys focused on tobacco smoke, there really isn’t any other survey that has measured exposure like this among non-tobacco users over so many years.

HOST:  And what groups of people are more likely to be exposed to secondhand smoke?

DEBRA BRODY:    We saw that exposure was disproportionately more prevalent among non-Hispanic blacks compared to non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic Asians, and Hispanic adults.  There are other findings from this report that highlight what we might say is a “health equity” concern as well.  We found that the prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure increased with decreasing level of family income and that the percentage of exposure also increased with decreasing education levels.

HOST:  Now are children more likely to be exposed to secondhand smoke than adults? Do we know about that?

DEBRA BRODY:    We did not include children for this short report but we have focused on youths in other reports.  We do know the percentage of secondhand smoke exposure in children exceeds adult prevalences, and it may be because of the involuntary nature of exposure.  Children may not be able to protect themselves from possible sources whereas adults can protect themselves and may be able to stay away from others who are smoking cigarettes or using other tobacco products.

HOST:  One more question:  Are there plans for any pains to continue to track secondhand smoke exposure in the population?

DEBRA BRODY:    Yes.  Our measurements of the cotinine levels will continue to be collected in future NHANES studies in order to track progress in reducing all secondhand smoke exposure.

HOST:  Our thanks to Debra Brody for joining us to discuss her new research on secondhand smoke exposure among American adults.  The new report was released yesterday, on February 4th.

HOST:  Today, there is another new report from NHANES – this one on fruit and vegetable consumption among American adults.  The new report features 2015-2018 data, and shows that 2/3 of adults age 20 and up consume fruit on a given day and over 9 in 10 consume vegetables.  The study shows that more women consume fruit than men, whereas an equal percentage of women and men consume vegetables.  Income level seems to play a key role here.  As the level of income rises among adults, so does fruit and vegetable consumption.  While vegetable consumption among adults has remained essentially unchanged over the past two decades, fruit consumption has decreased since 1999-2000, when over three quarters of adults consumed fruit on a given day.

This has been another edition… of “Statcast.”  Next week we’ll be discussing the latest quarterly health indicators from the National Health Interview Survey.


Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among Adults in the United States, 2015–2018

February 5, 2021

A new NCHS report examines the percentage of adults aged 20 and over who consumed fruit and vegetables on a given day by sex and income in 2015–2018 and trends in fruit and vegetable consumption.

Key Findings:

  • More than two-thirds (67.3%) of adults aged 20 and over consumed any fruit on a given day, and fruit consumption was higher among women (70.5%) compared with men (63.8%).
  • Approximately 95% of adults consumed any vegetables on a given day.
  • The percentage of adults who consumed any fruit; citrus, melon, or berries; and other types of whole fruit on a given day increased with income.
  • The percentage of adults who consumed dark green, red and orange, other vegetables, and any vegetable types on a given day increased with income.
  • The percentage of adults who consumed any fruit on a given day decreased from 77.2% in 1999–2000 to 64.9% in 2017–2018, but there was no change in the percentage consuming any vegetables.

QuickStats: Percentage of Adults Aged 20 Years or Older Who Had Taken Any Dietary Supplement† in the Past 30 Days, by Sex and Family Income

January 8, 2021

During 2017–2018, 57.6% of adults aged ≥20 years had taken a dietary supplement within the past 30 days.

The percentage increased with family income: 44.9% among those with family incomes <130% of the FPL, 56.2% among those with family incomes 130%–349% of the federal poverty level (FPL), and 65.7% among those with family incomes ≥350% of the FPL.

The increase with family income was seen for both men and women.

Women were more likely than were men to use a dietary supplement overall (63.8% versus 50.8%) and at each income level.

Source: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2017–2018. https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/search/datapage.aspx?Component=Dietary&CycleBeginYear=2017.

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7001a7.htm


Q & A Podcast with Author of Special Diets Among Adults Report

November 6, 2020

NCHS has a new podcast interview with Bryan Stierman, an epidemic intelligence officer with the CDC’s National Center for Health Statistics. Dr. Stierman works with the NCHS National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, or NHANES, and he is the lead author on a  study on Special Diets among American adults that was released on November 3, 2020.

https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/pressroom/podcasts/20201106/20201106.htm


Special Diets Among Adults: United States, 2015–2018

November 3, 2020

A new NCHS report  released today shows the percentage of U.S. adults who, on a given day, were on any special diet and specific types of special diets in 2015–2018 and trends from 2007–2008 through 2017–2018.

Key Findings: 

  • In 2015–2018, 17.1% of U.S. adults aged 20 and over were on a special diet on a given day.
  • More women were on a special diet than men, and more adults aged 40–59 and 60 and over were on a special diet than adults aged 20–39.
  • More non-Hispanic white adults (17.8%) were on a special diet than non-Hispanic black (14.7%) and non-Hispanic Asian (14.9%) adults.
  • The most common type of special diet reported among all adults was a weight loss or low-calorie diet.
  • From 2007–2008 through 2017–2018, the percentage of adults on any special diet, weight loss or low-calorie diets, and low carbohydrate diets increased, while the percentage of adults on low-fat or low-cholesterol diets decreased.

Abnormal Lipid Levels, Diagnosed High Cholesterol, and Lipid-lowering Treatment Among Adults: Los Angeles County and the United States, 1999–2014

October 27, 2020

A new NCHS Health E-Stat looks at the percentage of adults diagnosed with high cholesterol and, among those with diagnosed high cholesterol, those taking lipid-lowering medications and statins among adults in LA County and the United States during 1999–2006 and 2007–2014 .

Click to access Health-E-stat_lipidlevels-h.pdf


QuickStats: Percentage of Adults Aged 20 Years or Older Who Used Antidepressant Medications in the Past 30 Days by Sex and Marital Status

October 23, 2020

During 2015–2018, 13.6% of adults aged 20 years or older used prescription antidepressant medications in the past 30 days.

Antidepressant use was higher among divorced, separated, or widowed (20.5%) adults than among either married or living with partner (12.3%) or never married (10.8%) adults.

There was no difference in use between married and never married adults.

These same patterns were observed for both men and women. Within every marital status category, a higher percentage of women compared with men took antidepressants.

Source: Brody DJ, Gu Q. Antidepressant use among adults: United States, 2015–2018. NCHS Data Brief, no 377. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2020.

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6942a8.htm


Breakfast Intake Among Children and Adolescents: United States, 2015–2018

October 14, 2020

Questions for Ana Terry, Health Statistician and Lead Author of “Breakfast Intake Among Children and Adolescents: United States, 2015–2018.”

Q: Was there a specific finding in the data that surprised you from this report?

AT: It was interesting to see that the percentage of breakfast intake among adolescents was more than 20 percentage points lower than younger children: 73% of adolescents aged 12-19 and 96% of children aged 2-5 years old consumed breakfast.


Q: How did you obtain this data for this report?

AT: We assessed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, in which survey participants were asked to report all foods and beverages they consumed in the previous 24 hours, from midnight to midnight. We looked at children and adolescents, aged 2-19 years who reported eating “breakfast” (or “desayuno”).


Q: Is there any trend data that goes back further than 2009-2010?

AT: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey has been collecting diet intake information since 1971, for almost 50 years. We focused on breakfast consumption in the past 10 years for this report.


Q: What is the take home message for this report?

AT: Overall, we found that from 2015 to 2018, 82% of children and adolescents consumed breakfast on a given day; breakfast consumption decreased with age and was higher among children & adolescents from families with higher incomes; a lower percentage of non-Hispanic black children and adolescents consumed breakfast; and that milk, cereal, and water were the most commonly reported foods or beverages. The percentage of children and adolescents who consumed breakfast did not change in the past 10 years.


Q: Is there data on lunch and dinner?

AT: Yes, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which is the source of the data, conducts a 24-hour dietary recall, by which we gather information on all foods and beverages consumed by the participant in the previous 24 hours. Diet intake data is available for researchers to assess which meals and snacks were reported, the time of the day for each meal or snack, and the foods and beverages that were consumed. For this data brief, we focused on breakfast consumption from 2015 to 2018.