QuickStats: Percentage of Adults Aged 20 Years or Older Who Consumed Fruit on a Given Day, by Race and Hispanic Origin — United States, 2015–2018

September 10, 2021

mm7036a5-f

During 2015–2018, on a given day, 67.3% of adults aged ≥20 years consumed any fruit; 29.7% consumed citrus, melons, or berries; 47.5% consumed other whole fruits; and 30.8% consumed 100% fruit juice.

Non-Hispanic Asian (76.5%) and Hispanic adults (72.2%) were more likely to consume any fruit on a given day than non-Hispanic White (66.3%) and non-Hispanic Black adults (63.7%).

Non-Hispanic Black adults were least likely to consume citrus, melons, or berries (20.5%) and other whole fruit (35.6%), and non-Hispanic Asian adults were most likely to consume other whole fruits (60.1%).

A higher percentage of non-Hispanic Black (37.7%) and Hispanic (37.5%) adults consumed 100% fruit juice compared with non-Hispanic White (28.5%) and non-Hispanic Asian (28.9%) adults.

Source: NCHS Data Brief, no. 397, National Center for Health Statistics. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db397-H.pdf

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7036a5.htm


New Report on Children and Adolescent Body Measurements

August 4, 2021

NHSR160_Cover1NCHS releases a new report, “Mean Body Weight, Height, Waist Circumference, and Body Mass Index Among Children and Adolescents: United States, 1999–2018” that presents trends in mean weight, recumbent length, height, waist circumference, and body mass index (BMI) among children and adolescents in the United States from 1999 through 2018.

Key Findings:

  • No significant trends over time were observed in any of the body measures for children aged 2–5 years, except for an increase in mean BMI among girls.
  • Among girls aged 6–11, mean height and waist circumference significantly increased from 1999–2000 through 2003–2004, and then significantly decreased for height but remained stable for waist circumference through 2017–2018.
  • Among those aged 12–15, mean body weight and waist circumference increased over time among boys, and BMI increased among both boys and girls.
  • Among adolescent boys aged 16–19, body weight significantly increased from 1999–2000 through 2009–2010 and
    then significantly decreased through 2017–2018. In addition, height remained stable through 2009–2010 and then significantly decreased through 2017–2018.
  • Among adolescent girls aged 16–19, mean body weight, waist circumference, and BMI significantly increased from 1999–2000 through 2017–2018.

PODCAST: NHANES Updates, Drug Overdose Deaths, and ER Visits From Motor Vehicle Crashes

June 18, 2021

https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/pressroom/podcasts/2021/20210618/20210618.htm

podcast-iconHOST:  In March of 2020, field operations for the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey – or NHANES – were halted due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Field operations are scheduled to restart later this summer.  But the halt in operations presented a problem, since NHANES data traditionally is released in two-year cycles in order to have a large enough sample size to be nationally representative.  Because the data collected in the cycle from 2019 thru March 2020 are ­not nationally representative, NCHS took steps to combine these “partial-cycle” data with previously released 2017–2018 data in order to produce nationally representative estimates.

This effort resulted in a new report this week that explains these “prepandemic NHANES data files,” from the period January 2017 thru March 2020, and outlines recommendations as well as limitations related to using the files.  The new report also presents prevalence estimates for selected health outcomes based on these files.

One of the health topics selected was obesity.  From January 2017 to March 2020, the data show that 1 in 5 children and adolescents in the U.S. were obese, or 19.7% of the age 2-19 population.  The report also shows that nearly half of children and adolescents – or 46% – had untreated or restored cavities in one or more of their primary or permanent teeth.

Among adults age 20 and up, the age-adjusted prevalence of obesity was more than 4 in 10, or 42%, and nearly 1 in 10 were severely obese. In addition to obesity, the new data show that diabetes prevalence among adults was nearly 15% and that nearly half of adults age 18 and over – or 45% — had hypertension.  Also, among older adults age 65 and up, complete tooth loss was present in nearly 14% of that population.

Ultimately, these new estimates are similar to those reported during the 2017-2018 cycle, but the additional year and two plus months-worth of data provide a larger sample size and thus more precise estimates.  And the release of these data mark another important milestone, in that they are the last NHANES data collected before widespread transmission of COVID-19 began in 2020.

(MUSIC BRIDGE)

HOST:  This week, the monthly provisional numbers for drug overdose deaths in the U.S. were released.  The latest round of data cover the one-year period ending in November of 2020, and show that the number of drug overdose deaths increased nearly 30% from the one-year period ending in November 2019.  Over 92,000 Americans died of drug overdoses in the year ending in November 2020, up from less than 72,000 the year before.

Three out of every four of these overdose deaths involved opioids, as the number of opioid-involved deaths topped 69,000 in this one-year period ending in November 2020, a major increase from 50,504 deaths the year before.  It’s important to note that recent trends may still be at least partially due to incomplete data.

A big factor behind the increase in overdose deaths is the continued increase in deaths involving synthetic opioids, primarily fentanyl.  But increases in deaths from other drugs are playing a major role as well.  Overdose deaths from cocaine as well as psychostimulants such as methamphetamine have shown significant increases compared to the previous year.

The next release of provisional numbers will feature full-year 2020 data for the first time.

(MUSIC BRIDGE)

HOST:  An average of 3.4 million emergency department visits occur each year due to injuries from motor vehicle crashes.  Most people who are injured or killed in motor vehicle crashes are occupants.  Studies have shown that medical care costs and productivity losses associated with motor vehicle injuries and deaths exceeded $75 billion in 2017.

Today, NCHS released a new report that presents emergency department visit rates per 1,000 for motor vehicle crashes by age, race and ethnicity, health insurance status, and census region. The data come from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, an annual, nationally representative survey of nonfederal, general, and short-stay hospitals in the United States.

The report shows that in 2017–2018, the overall ER visit rate for motor vehicle crash injuries was 5.3 visits per 1,000, and was highest among patients between ages 15 and 24.  The ER visit rate for non-Hispanic black patients was several times higher than for non-Hispanic white or Hispanic patients.

Emergency department visit rates were higher for patients who had Medicaid, no insurance, or workers’ compensation insurance as their primary expected source of payment compared with patients who had private insurance or Medicare.  The ER visit rate for motor vehicle crashes at hospitals located in the South was higher than the rates at hospitals in all other census regions of the United States.


Race and Hispanic-origin Disparities in Underlying Medical Conditions Associated With Severe COVID-19 Illness: U.S. Adults, 2015–2018

April 28, 2021

Figure_02192021A new NCHS report calculates the prevalence of selected conditions by race and Hispanic origin among U.S. adults (aged 20 and over) during 2015–2018.

Data were used from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Conditions included asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and heart disease based on self-report; and obesity, severe obesity, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, smoking, and hypertension based on physical measurements

Findings:

  • An estimated 180.3 million (76.2%) U.S. adults had at least one condition during 2015–2018.
  • Approximately 86.4% of non-Hispanic black adults had at least one condition, 58.5% had at least two conditions, and 29% had at least three conditions; these prevalence estimates were significantly higher than among other race and Hispanic-origin groups.
  • Compared with non-Hispanic white adults, Hispanic adults had higher rates of obesity and diabetes.
  • Non-Hispanic Asian adults had lower rates of at least one condition, but higher rates of diabetes compared with non-Hispanic white adults.
  • Non-Hispanic black women were more likely to have multiple conditions, obesity, severe obesity, diabetes, and hypertension compared with non-Hispanic white women.
  • Non-Hispanic black men were more likely to have one or more conditions and hypertension compared with non-Hispanic white men.
  • Hispanic men were more likely to have diabetes compared with non-Hispanic white men.

Dietary Supplement Use Among Adults: United States, 2017–2018

February 25, 2021

NCHS releases a new report that describes recent prevalence estimates for dietary supplement use among U.S. adults, the distribution of the number of dietary supplements used, and the most common types of dietary supplements used.

Trends in dietary supplement use from 2007–2008 through 2017–2018 are also reported.

Findings:

  • Among U.S. adults aged 20 and over, 57.6% used any dietary supplement in the past 30 days, and use was higher among women (63.8%) than men (50.8%).
  • Dietary supplement use increased with age, overall and in both sexes, and was highest among women aged 60 and over (80.2%).
  • The use of two, three, and four or more dietary supplements increased with age, while the percentage of adults not using any dietary supplement decreased with age.
  • The most common types of dietary supplements used by all age groups were multivitamin-mineral supplements, followed by vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acid supplements.
  • From 2007–2008 through 2017–2018, the prevalence of dietary supplement use increased in all age groups among U.S. adults.

QuickStats: Trends in Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Nonsmoking Adults, by Race† and Hispanic Origin — National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, United States, 2009–2018

February 12, 2021

The percentage of nonsmoking adults exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) declined from 27.7% in 2009–2010 to 20.7% in 2017–2018.

During this period, decreasing trends in the percentage of persons with SHS exposure also were observed for nonsmoking non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic adults.

There was no significant decline in the percentage of persons with exposure for nonsmoking non-Hispanic Asian adults from 2011–2012 to 2017–2018.

The percentage of persons with SHS exposure was consistently higher for nonsmoking non-Hispanic Black adults throughout the period.

During 2017–2018, 41.5% of nonsmoking non-Hispanic Black adults were exposed to SHS compared with 22.7% non-Hispanic Asian, 17.8% non-Hispanic White, and 16.2% nonsmoking Hispanic adults.

Source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7006a6.htm


PODCAST: Secondhand Smoke Exposure among U.S. Adults

February 5, 2021

STATCAST, FEBRUARY 2021: DISCUSSION WITH DEBRA BRODY, AN EPIDEMIOLOGIST WITH NHANES, ABOUT SECONDHAND SMOKE EXPOSURE AMONG ADULTS.

https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/pressroom/podcasts/2021/20210205/20210205.htm

TRANSCRIPT

HOST:  Today we welcome Debra Brody, an epidemiologist with NCHS’s National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, or NHANES.  Debra has been studying trends and exposure to secondhand smoke in America and has just authored a new study focusing on secondhand smoke exposure among adults in the U.S.

HOST:  First off, what are some of the reasons why secondhand smoke is a public health threat and what did you set out to accomplish with this new study?

DEBRA BRODY:  Well, I want to begin by defining secondhand smoke and that is the smoke that is breathed in involuntarily from the burning tobacco of smokers.  And because it contains toxic chemicals, it has many of the same harmful health risks to non-smokers as tobacco smoke has to active smokers.  And this would include increased risks of respiratory diseases, heart disease, stroke, and lung cancer.  So the bottom line is that no amount of exposure to secondhand smoke is safe. And while we can not determine the exact source of exposure, our goal was to assess the current proportion of the non-smoking adult population in the U.S. who are exposed to the burning smoke of others.

HOST:  So how does NHANES measure secondhand smoke?

DEBRA BRODY:   So NHANES is a national survey that assesses the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the U.S., and the survey is unique in that it combines interviews with physical exams and laboratory testing. So as part of the laboratory component, we draw blood from our participants and measure cotinine levels.  Cotinine is a metabolite of the chemical nicotine that’s found in tobacco smoke.  And cotinine provides a good measurement of the amount of nicotine a person has in his or her body due to tobacco inhalation.  So persons who don’t smoke should not have any cotinine in their system unless they breathe in smoke from other people’s tobacco.  In this report, secondhand smoke is based on having a certain level of cotinine in the blood, indicating current exposure to tobacco smoke.

HOST:  With the growth of E-cigarettes, is there a way to measure secondhand smoke with that?

DEBRA BRODY:   That’s a good question.  So we can’t distinguish from the cotinine level the source of the tobacco product.  So we don’t know whether it’s based on cigarette smoking or cigar, pipe, or hookas or possibly even from the vapor from E-cigarettes.

HOST:  I see.  So how many folks participated in this study?

DEBRA BRODY:  Our report focuses on data from non-smoking adults during the period of 2015 to 2018, and in this four-year period there were about 7,600 non-smoking adults who were 18 years and older who had blood drawn during the examination and answered questions about their smoking status and their current tobacco use.  But I want to mention NHANES is a population-based survey and is nationally representative of all adults in the U.S.

HOST:  So what’s the bottom line here?  How prevalent is secondhand exposure in the adult population?

DEBRA BRODY:  So we found that 20.8% or about one in five non-smoking adults 18 years and older were exposed to secondhand smoke.  Overall, we found the percentage of secondhand smoke exposure was similar for men and women.

HOST:  So how has this changed over time?

DEBRA BRODY:   If we look back to when we first measured cotinine in the survey – and that was in the late 80’s – and at that time close to 90% of all Americans were exposed to secondhand smoke.  Now, in this report we examine the change in exposure prevalences over a 10-year period. So that would be since 2009-2010.  Across the 10-year timeframe we observed a downward trend overall.

HOST:  So this isn’t part of your study of course but you mentioned that when you originally started measuring this back in the late 80’s, ninety percent of adults were exposed. I trust that what has happened is we’ve seen the results since then of all the smoke-free establishments?

DEBRA BRODY:    Yeah that’s really a good question.  So exposure has steadily decreased in the U.S. obviously with increases in regulatory oversight concerning smoke-free indoor air quality.  And then individual policies regarding smoking in homes and cars, and then declines in smoking, particularly cigarette smoking overall.

HOST:  So are your findings consistent with other studies on secondhand smoke?

DEBRA BRODY:   As I mentioned, NHANES is a national survey representing the U.S. population and has been measuring secondhand smoke exposure using a biomarker – that is cotinine – for more than 40 years.  While there are some other surveys focused on tobacco smoke, there really isn’t any other survey that has measured exposure like this among non-tobacco users over so many years.

HOST:  And what groups of people are more likely to be exposed to secondhand smoke?

DEBRA BRODY:    We saw that exposure was disproportionately more prevalent among non-Hispanic blacks compared to non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic Asians, and Hispanic adults.  There are other findings from this report that highlight what we might say is a “health equity” concern as well.  We found that the prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure increased with decreasing level of family income and that the percentage of exposure also increased with decreasing education levels.

HOST:  Now are children more likely to be exposed to secondhand smoke than adults? Do we know about that?

DEBRA BRODY:    We did not include children for this short report but we have focused on youths in other reports.  We do know the percentage of secondhand smoke exposure in children exceeds adult prevalences, and it may be because of the involuntary nature of exposure.  Children may not be able to protect themselves from possible sources whereas adults can protect themselves and may be able to stay away from others who are smoking cigarettes or using other tobacco products.

HOST:  One more question:  Are there plans for any pains to continue to track secondhand smoke exposure in the population?

DEBRA BRODY:    Yes.  Our measurements of the cotinine levels will continue to be collected in future NHANES studies in order to track progress in reducing all secondhand smoke exposure.

HOST:  Our thanks to Debra Brody for joining us to discuss her new research on secondhand smoke exposure among American adults.  The new report was released yesterday, on February 4th.

HOST:  Today, there is another new report from NHANES – this one on fruit and vegetable consumption among American adults.  The new report features 2015-2018 data, and shows that 2/3 of adults age 20 and up consume fruit on a given day and over 9 in 10 consume vegetables.  The study shows that more women consume fruit than men, whereas an equal percentage of women and men consume vegetables.  Income level seems to play a key role here.  As the level of income rises among adults, so does fruit and vegetable consumption.  While vegetable consumption among adults has remained essentially unchanged over the past two decades, fruit consumption has decreased since 1999-2000, when over three quarters of adults consumed fruit on a given day.

This has been another edition… of “Statcast.”  Next week we’ll be discussing the latest quarterly health indicators from the National Health Interview Survey.


Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among Adults in the United States, 2015–2018

February 5, 2021

A new NCHS report examines the percentage of adults aged 20 and over who consumed fruit and vegetables on a given day by sex and income in 2015–2018 and trends in fruit and vegetable consumption.

Key Findings:

  • More than two-thirds (67.3%) of adults aged 20 and over consumed any fruit on a given day, and fruit consumption was higher among women (70.5%) compared with men (63.8%).
  • Approximately 95% of adults consumed any vegetables on a given day.
  • The percentage of adults who consumed any fruit; citrus, melon, or berries; and other types of whole fruit on a given day increased with income.
  • The percentage of adults who consumed dark green, red and orange, other vegetables, and any vegetable types on a given day increased with income.
  • The percentage of adults who consumed any fruit on a given day decreased from 77.2% in 1999–2000 to 64.9% in 2017–2018, but there was no change in the percentage consuming any vegetables.

QuickStats: Percentage of Adults Aged 20 Years or Older Who Had Taken Any Dietary Supplement† in the Past 30 Days, by Sex and Family Income

January 8, 2021

During 2017–2018, 57.6% of adults aged ≥20 years had taken a dietary supplement within the past 30 days.

The percentage increased with family income: 44.9% among those with family incomes <130% of the FPL, 56.2% among those with family incomes 130%–349% of the federal poverty level (FPL), and 65.7% among those with family incomes ≥350% of the FPL.

The increase with family income was seen for both men and women.

Women were more likely than were men to use a dietary supplement overall (63.8% versus 50.8%) and at each income level.

Source: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2017–2018. https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/search/datapage.aspx?Component=Dietary&CycleBeginYear=2017.

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7001a7.htm


Q & A Podcast with Author of Special Diets Among Adults Report

November 6, 2020

NCHS has a new podcast interview with Bryan Stierman, an epidemic intelligence officer with the CDC’s National Center for Health Statistics. Dr. Stierman works with the NCHS National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, or NHANES, and he is the lead author on a  study on Special Diets among American adults that was released on November 3, 2020.

https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/pressroom/podcasts/20201106/20201106.htm