FRAX-based Estimates of 10-year Probability of Hip and Major Osteoporotic Fracture Among Adults Aged 40 and Over: United States, 2013 and 2014

March 28, 2017

NCHS released a new report that uses FRAX estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013–2014 to describe the hip and major osteoporotic fracture probability distribution (for adults aged 40 and over) and prevalence of elevated probabilities (for adults aged 50 and over) in the United States.

The report defines the distribution of the probabilities of having a hip or major osteoporotic (hip, spine, forearm, humerus) fracture in the next 10 years among middle-aged and older US adults.  For example, prior to this report, NCHS didn’t know what the average 10-year probability of having one of these fracture types was in this age range.  NCHS also looked at the prevalence of elevated probabilities for these fractures in adults age 50+ years using thresholds defined by the National Osteoporosis Foundation for that age range.

FRAX algorithms are proprietary equations developed by researchers at the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Center on Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield, UK, to estimate the probability of having a hip or major osteoporotic fracture in the next 10 years.  These equations use age, sex, body mass index, femur neck bone density, and several health and lifestyle variables (smoking, alcohol consumption, personal and parental fracture history, glucocorticoid use, rheumatoid arthritis) to predict these 10-year probabilities.  The equations also account for race and Hispanic origin, because race-specific equations were developed for use in the U.S.

In summary, the report found that the average 10-year probability of hip or major osteoporotic fracture fell below the thresholds considered as an elevated risk in US adults age 50+ in 2013-2014.  However, 8-19% of adults age 50+ had an elevated 10-year probability of experiencing one of these fractures in 2013-2014.


QuickStats: Prevalence of Untreated Dental Caries in Primary Teeth Among Children Aged 2–8 Years, by Age Group and Race/Hispanic Origin

March 13, 2017

During 2011–2014, 13.7% of children aged 2–8 years had untreated dental caries in their primary teeth (baby teeth).

The proportion of children with untreated dental caries in their primary teeth increased with age: 10.9% among children aged 2–5 years and 17.4% among children aged 6–8 years.

A larger proportion of Hispanic (19.4%) and non-Hispanic black children (19.3%) had untreated dental caries in primary teeth compared with non-Hispanic white (9.5%) children.

Sourcehttps://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/66/wr/mm6609a5.htm


Prevalence of Low High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Among Adults, by Physical Activity: United States, 2011-2014

March 3, 2017

Questions for Marissa L. Zwald, Ph.D., M.P.H., Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer and Lead Author on “Prevalence of Low High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Among Adults, by Physical Activity: United States, 2011-2014

Q: Why did you conduct this study?

MZ: We produced this report because we wanted to offer statistics that highlight how regular physical activity can reduce illness from chronic diseases and premature death. In 2008, the Department of Health and Human Services released the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. We wanted to provide the most recent national estimates of low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (or serum HDL cholesterol less than 40 mg/dL) by whether or not adults met these national physical activity guidelines, and to understand how these patterns differed by sex, age, race and Hispanic origin, and education level.


Q: What caused you to focus your report on low HDL cholesterol and physical activity?

MZ: HDL cholesterol is known as the “good” cholesterol because having high levels can reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease. We know from previous research that regular physical activity can help increase HDL cholesterol levels.


Q: Was there a result in your study’s analysis that you hadn’t expected and that really surprised you?

MZ: The differences among some subgroups that we examined were quite striking. Our study confirmed that less active adults were more likely to have low HDL cholesterol. Interestingly, differences in low HDL cholesterol by physical activity were more pronounced in some subgroups we examined, including older adults (aged 60 and over), non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and college graduates. More in-depth research is needed to explore why the association between physical activity and low HDL cholesterol levels is stronger for some groups than others.


Q: What differences, if any, did you see among race and ethnic groups?

MZ: Among non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black adults, low HDL cholesterol prevalence was significantly higher among those who did not meet the physical activity guidelines compared with those who met the guidelines.


Q: What is the take home message of this report?

MZ: I think the take home message of this report is that while sex and age can affect HDL cholesterol levels, there are also lifestyle changes that can improve HDL levels – and this includes being physically active and meeting the national physical activity guidelines.


QuickStats: Percentage of Total Daily Kilocalories Consumed from Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Among Children and Adults, by Sex and Income Level

February 21, 2017

During 2011–2014, on average, 7.3% of boys’ and 7.2% of girls’ total daily calories were obtained from Sugar Sweetened Beverages (SSB) compared with 6.9% for men and 6.1% for women.

For men, women, and girls, the percentage of total daily kilocalories from SSBs declined as income level increased.

For boys, the percentage of total daily kilocalories was lower for those in the highest income group than in the other income groups. Compared with women, a larger proportion of men’s total daily kilocalorie intake came from SSBs.

Source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/66/wr/mm6606a8.htm


FACT OR FICTION: Do most boys and girls drink sugar-sweetened beverages each day?

January 26, 2017

Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db271.pdf


Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in U.S.

January 26, 2017
Asher Rosinger, Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer

Asher Rosinger, Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer

Questions for Asher Rosinger, Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer and Lead Author of “Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Among U.S. Adults, 2011–2014” and “Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Among U.S. Youth, 2011–2014

Q: Why did you decide to do a report on sugar-sweetened beverage consumption?

AR: Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption has been linked to a myriad of negative health conditions, such as weight gain, dental caries, and type 2 diabetes.

In these reports we wanted to provide the most recent estimates of the calories adults and youth are consuming from sugar-sweetened beverages, what percentage of their daily caloric intake sugar-sweetened beverages represented, and how these patterns differed by sex, age, and race and Hispanic origin.


Q: How do you define a sugar-sweetened beverage?

AR: We defined sugar-sweetened beverages to include regular soda, fruit drinks (including sweetened bottled waters and fruit juices and nectars with added sugars), sports and energy drinks, sweetened coffees and teas, and other pre-sweetened beverages. Sugar-sweetened beverages do not include diet drinks, defined as less than 40 kilocalories (kcal) per 240 mL of the beverage; 100% fruit juice; beverages sweetened by the participant, including coffee and teas; alcohol; or flavored milks. This definition is consistent with previous reports.


Q: Is this the first time NHANES has released a report on this topic? If not, where is trend data available?

AR: NHANES has reported on sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in a previous report and most recently in a journal article in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition by Kit et al, which specifically looked at trends from 1999–2010 among youth and adults. We used the same definition as Kit et al. so that our results are comparable. The mean calorie consumption and percentage of total daily calories consumed from sugar-sweetened beverages among U.S. adults declined from 196 kcal and 8.7% in 1999–2000 to 151 kcal and 6.9% per day in 2009–2010. For youth the drop has been more dramatic. The mean calorie consumption and the percentage of calories consumed from sugar-sweetened beverages among U.S. youth declined from 223 kcal and 10.9% in 1999–2000 to 155 kcal and 8.0% per day in 2009–2010. Our reports found that in 2011–2014 U.S. adults consumed 145 kcal and 6.5% of their daily caloric intake from sugar-sweetened beverages, while U.S. youth consumed 143 kcal and 7.3%.

Kit BK, Fakhouri TH, Park S, Nielsen SJ, Ogden CL. Trends in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among youth and adults in the United States: 1999–2010. Am J Clin Nutr 98(1):180–8. 2013.


Q: How many U.S. adults and children are consuming at least one sugar-sweetened beverage a day?

AR: Nearly half or 49.3% of U.S. adults and almost two-thirds or 62.9% of children are consuming at least one sugar-sweetened beverage a day. Using the 2011-2012 and 2013-2014 Alternative Population Control totals these percentages translate to more than 111 million U.S. adults and 47 million children who drank at least one sugar-sweetened beverage on a given day.


Q: Were there any findings that surprised you?

AR: We were surprised by the finding that non-Hispanic Asian adults and youth consumed fewer calories from sugar-sweetened beverages than any other race and Hispanic origin group. In fact, consumption in this group was nearly half the amount of calories and percent of total daily caloric intake than the other groups. For example, on average non-Hispanic Asian boys consumed 73 kilocalories from sugar-sweetened beverages representing 3.5% of their total daily caloric intake, whereas every other group consumed more than 150 kcals and more than 7% of their total caloric intake from sugar-sweetened beverages.


QuickStats: Prevalence of Untreated Dental Caries in Permanent Teeth Among Children and Adolescents Aged 6–19 Years, by Age Group

January 17, 2017

 

During 2011–2014, 13.3% of children and adolescents aged 6–19 years had untreated dental caries in their permanent teeth.

The percentage of children and adolescents with untreated dental caries increased with age: 6.1% among those aged 6–11 years, 14.5% among those aged 12–15 years, and 22.6% among those aged 16–19 years.

Source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/66/wr/mm6601a11.htm