Provisional Number of Drug Overdose Deaths in the U.S. by Drug or Drug Class, through March 31, 2018

October 17, 2018

DRUGS_OCT2018SOURCE: National Vital Statistics System.

On Wednesday, October 17, 2018, NCHS released its latest monthly provisional estimates of drug overdose deaths in the United States in a web-only data visualization dashboard.  The latest data cover the period April 1, 2017 through March 31, 2018.

The figure shown above illustrates the drug or drug class responsible for these overdose deaths.  Opioids (any kind) accounted for 46,655 reported deaths over this period (Predicted number of deaths: 48,400);  synthetic opioids, excluding methadone (and including Fentanyl) accounted for 28,826 reported deaths (Predicted number of deaths: 30,051);  Heroin accounted for 14,964 reported deaths (Predicted number of deaths: 15,424); Cocaine accounted for 14,205 reported deaths (Predicted number of deaths: 14,711); natural and semi-synthetic opioids (including oxycodone and other prescription opioids) accounted for 13,866 reported deaths (Predicted number of deaths: 14,490); Psychostimulants with abuse potential (which include methamphetamine) accounted for 10,767 reported deaths (Predicted number of deaths: 11,249); and Methadone accounted for 3,153 reported deaths (Predicted number of deaths: 3,286).

For more information, visit the data visualization gallery on the NCHS web site at: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/vsrr/drug-overdose-data.htm.

 

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Fact or Fiction: Do women who live in rural counties in the U.S. give birth at an earlier age than women in large metropolitan counties?

October 17, 2018

Source: National Vital Statistics System, 2017

https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db323-h.pdf


Trends in Fertility and Mother’s Age at First Birth Among Rural and Metropolitan Counties: United States, 2007–2017

October 17, 2018

Questions for Danielle Ely, Health Statistician and Lead Author of “Trends in Fertility and Mother’s Age at First Birth Among Rural and Metropolitan Counties: United States, 2007–2017

Q: Why did you decide to look at fertility rates and mother’s age at first birth among rural and metropolitan U.S. counties?

DE: Rural and metropolitan counties have a variety of differences related to general health, birth outcomes, and mortality rates. However, we noticed that recent research did not focus on the overall fertility differences in these areas or maternal age, which can affect birth outcomes. Looking at these items can help us understand why we might see differences between rural and metro counties in births and birth outcomes.


Q: How did the findings vary by race?

DE: Patterns for total fertility rates were similar by race and Hispanic origin. There were higher total fertility rates in rural counties than in metropolitan counties among the three race and Hispanic origin groups in 2007. In 2017, this pattern was the same for non-Hispanic white and Hispanic women, but non-Hispanic black women had higher total fertility rates in small or medium metro counties compared with rural and large metro counties. Hispanic women had the highest total fertility rates for each urbanization level in both 2007 and 2017

Non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black and Hispanic women had lower ages at first birth in rural counties compared with both metro county types. This was true in both 2007 and 2017, and differences between county types widened over this time.


Q: How did the findings vary by mean age of mothers at first birth?

DE: Mean age at first birth was lower in rural counties than small or medium metro counties and large metro counties from 2007-2017. Each of the three race and Hispanic origin groups had lower mean age at first birth in rural counties compared with metropolitan counties.


Q: Is there any comparable trend data prior to 2007?

DE: We have not computed trend data on total fertility rates or mean age at first birth by urbanization level prior to 2007.


Q: What is the take home message in this report?

DE: The important message in this report is that there are differences in the fertility rates and mean age at first birth between rural and metro areas, and these differences have gotten larger over time. These trends are generally the same by race and Hispanic origin. Information on differences in birth rates and maternal age by urbanization level can inform decisions on resource allocation and ultimately lead to improvement in infant and maternal health.


QuickStats: Percentage of Youths Aged 2–19 Years Consuming Any Fast Food on a Given Day, by Race and Hispanic Origin — National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013–2016

October 15, 2018

During 2013–2016, 36.0% of youths aged 2–19 consumed fast food on a given day.

Non-Hispanic Asian youths (27.3%) had a lower percentage of fast food consumption on a given day, compared with non-Hispanic black (39.6%), Hispanic (36.6%), and non-Hispanic white (35.4%) youths.

There were no significant differences in fast food consumption on a given day among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic youths.

Source: National Center for Health Statistics Data Brief No. 322. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db322.htm; National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data, 2013–2016. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes.htm.

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/mm6740a8.htm


Fast Food Consumption Among Adults in the United States, 2013-2016

October 3, 2018

Questions for Cheryl Fryar, M.S.P.H., Health Statistician and Lead Author of “Fast Food Consumption Among Adults in the United States, 2013-2016

Q: Of all the types of food that Americans eat, what made you decide to focus on fast food for this study?

CF: We focused on fast food for this report because fast food has played an important role in the American diet in recent decades. Fast food has been associated with poor diet and increased risk of obesity. In a previous report, we analyzed and described the percentage of calories consumed from fast food among adults. This current study looks at fast food consumption in a different way. We describe who is eating fast food on a given day. Specifically in this new report, we look at the percentage of adults who consume fast food overall as well as by sex, age group, race and Hispanic origin, family income level and eating occasion.


Q: Your new report measures fast food consumption “on a given day.” What does that mean exactly?

CF: Fast food consumption “on a given day” reflects the way respondents in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey reported all the foods and beverages they consumed in the previous 24 hours. The survey is designed to be representative of people anywhere in the United States at any time of the year, so “on a given day” refers to any day—so for example, on any day in the United States, approximately 37% of U.S. adults consume some fast food.

“Fast food” is defined as any food a respondent reported getting from a “restaurant fast food/pizza” outlet in the 2013-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey – often known as NHANES.


Q: What type of trend data do you have on eating fast food in the United States; for example, how has the consumption of fast food changed in the United States over the last 10 to 20 years?

CF: While we did not look at trend data for this report, dietary data collected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey is a joint effort between the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The USDA has tables with calories (or energy) consumed from quick service restaurants – which includes fast food along with cafeterias and food trucks. These tables show that in 2015-2016, 15% of calories was from quick service restaurants compared to 16% in 2011-2012.


Q: Was there a finding in this new report on fast food that you hadn’t expected and that really surprised you?

CF:  While there really wasn’t anything in this report that I hadn’t expected to see or that was surprising to me, this report’s analysis does offer some new information. Results from this study were similar to what we found for youth in 2011-2012, where 34% of youth consumed fast food. A new contribution from this new research is reporting fast food consumption among non-Hispanic Asian American adults in comparison to other groups. A notable finding is that non-Hispanic Asian American adults consumed a lower percentage of fast food (30.6%) compared to non-Hispanic white (37.6%) and non-Hispanic black (42.4%) adults.


Q: What differences or similarities did you see between or among various demographic groups in this analysis of fast food consumption?

CF: We found some differences in the percentage of U.S. adults who consume fast food. For example, fast food consumption decreased with age and increased with increasing income. About 45% of young adults consumed fast food compared to just over 24% of older adults. About 32% of adults in the lowest income group consumed fast food compared to 42% of adults in the highest income group. And a lower percentage of non-Hispanic Asian adults (30.6%) consumed fast food compared to non-Hispanic white (37.6%) and non-Hispanic black (42.4%) adults.

Also, among those who consumed fast food, men were more likely than women to eat fast food at lunch, but women were more likely than men to report eating fast food as a snack.


Q: What would you say is the take-home message of this report?

CF: The take-home message of this report is that overall more than one-third of U.S. adults and 45% of young adults consume fast food on a given day. Fast food restaurants can vary, though consumers can find nutritional information, such as calories, on the menu in most fast food establishments and restaurants.


Fact or Fiction: Do One in Three U.S. Adults Eat Seafood at Least Two Times Per Week?

September 28, 2018

SOURCE: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013–2016.

https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db321.pdf


Seafood Consumption in the United States, 2013–2016

September 28, 2018

Questions for Ana Terry, Health Statistician and Lead Author of “Seafood Consumption in the United States, 2013–2016

Q: What surprised you most about the findings in your report?

AT: Although the findings were not necessarily surprising, we found that seafood consumption was more than twice as high among non-Hispanic Asian adults compared with adults of other race and Hispanic-origin groups.  More than 40% of non-Hispanic Asian adults consumed seafood at least twice per week compared to about 19% of non-Hispanic white, 23% of non-Hispanic black, and 15% of Hispanic  adults.  This is consistent with other studies, which have found that people of Asian descent living in the U.S. consume seafood more frequently, in greater variety, and in greater quantity than non-Asian Americans (Liu et al, Environmental Research, October 2017).


Q: Do we know why there is such a disparity between US Asians and other race/ethnic groups when it comes to consuming the recommended amount of seafood?

AT: We analyzed data from the 2013-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey that was collected by a food frequency questionnaire in which persons were asked about the frequency and type of fish and shellfish they consumed in the previous 30 days.  The questionnaire did not ask for the reasons why individuals consumed or did not consume seafood. Other studies have found that diet patterns in Asian countries include fish and shellfish intake levels greater than the average seafood consumption worldwide and that the food choices of people of Asian descent living in the U.S. , are influences by Asian dietary patterns (Liu et al, Environmental Research, October 2017).


Q: Does the fact that seafood consumption has declined mean the population is at less of a risk for mercury exposure?

AT: We did not assess mercury exposure in this report.


Q: What are the health benefits to eating seafood?

AT: The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend for the general population consumption of about 8 oz per week of a variety of seafood. Fish and shellfish are excellent sources of high quality protein, are low in saturated fat, are rich in minerals and vitamins, and provide certain omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA) that the body cannot make and are important for normal growth and development.  Seafood and omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to protect against health problems.


Q: What kinds of seafood are most healthy to eat?

AT: Cold water oily fish have the highest levels of omega-3 fatty acids but lower in methyl mercury (according to the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans). Cold water oily fish include:  Salmon, Anchovies, Herring, Shad, Atlantic and Pacific mackerel