QuickStats: Infant Mortality Rate, by Urbanization Level — National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2007 and 2015

October 20, 2017

In both 2007 and 2015, infant mortality rates were highest in rural counties (7.5 infant deaths per 1,000 live births and 6.8, respectively).

Rates were lower in small and medium urban counties (7.1 in 2007 and 6.4 in 2015) and lowest in large urban counties (6.4 in 2007 and 5.4 in 2015).

For all three urbanization levels, infant mortality rates were significantly lower in 2015, compared with rates in 2007.

Source: National Vital Statistics System, linked birth/infant death period files, 2007 and 2015.

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/66/wr/mm6641a8.htm

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Hypertension Prevalence and Control Among Adults: United States, 2015-2016

October 18, 2017

Questions for Cheryl Fryar, M.S.P.H., Health Statistician and Lead Author on “Hypertension Prevalence and Control Among Adults: United States, 2015-2016

Q: What made you decide to conduct this study on hypertension prevalence and control?

CF: The primary motivation for conducting this study was to offer the public updated data on U.S. adults who have high blood pressure. Every two years new data are available for us to provide updated estimates of hypertension prevalence and control. Data were recently released for the 2015-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and our next step was to analyze the data and provide accessible statistical information that might guide actions to improve the health of the American people.


Q: Was there a finding in your new study that surprised you, and if so, why?

CF: The findings were pretty consistent with what’s been previously reported. The prevalence of hypertension hasn’t changed much since 1999. Among those with hypertension, controlled hypertension increased between 1999 and 2010, and then has remained stable since that time. There was an observed decrease in hypertension control since 2013-2014, but this change was not statistically significant. It is too early to tell whether or not a change in hypertension control is occurring.


Q: What do you think is the most interesting demographic finding among your new study’s findings for 2015-2016 – age, race, sex?

CF: There are a number of interesting demographic findings in this report, and we still find disparities among demographic subgroups. Hypertension prevalence was highest among non-Hispanic black men and women. Hypertension also increases with age — from 7.5% in the youngest age group 18-39, to 63.1% in the oldest age group 60 and over.

On the other hand, among adults with hypertension, about half of adults 40 and over with hypertension had controlled hypertension compared to about a third of young adults. Overall, women with hypertension had higher controlled hypertension than men with hypertension.


Q: When you identified adults with controlled hypertension in your study, was that through participants’ self-reporting that they were on medication for high blood pressure or another method? If it was self-reporting, how do you know it’s true?

CF: One of the strengths of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, or NHANES, is that it combines both interviews in the home and physical examinations in mobile examination centers, including blood pressure measurement. In order to identify people with controlled hypertension, we looked at the measured blood pressure of adults who were taking medication for their hypertension. If they had a measured systolic blood pressure reading < than 140 mmHg AND a diastolic reading of <90 mmHg, then their hypertension was considered controlled.


Q: What is the take-home message from this report? 

CF: I think the take-home message of this report is that hypertension prevalence has remained unchanged since 1999 at around 29%, and that just under half of adults with hypertension have their hypertension under control. High blood pressure among U.S. adults is a persistent and prevalent concern that is a serious factor in the health and well-being of the nation. The statistics in this new report show that we have yet to meet the Heathy People 2020 Goal of 61.2% for hypertension control.


Fact or Fiction: Has the percentage of adults in the U.S. who are obese leveled off in the last several years?

October 16, 2017

Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db288.pdf


Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults and Youth: United States, 2015–2016

October 13, 2017

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Questions for Craig M. Hales, M.D., Lead Author on “Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults and Youth: United States, 2015–2016

Q: There seems to be confusion about whether obesity is going up or is stable. Could you clarify based on your new data?

CH: The trends in obesity prevalence are different for adults 20 years and over than they are in youth 2-19 years. Since 1999-2000 there has been an increasing trend among adults. The prevalence of obesity was 30.5% among adults in 1999-2000 and has increased almost 10 percentage points to 39.6% in 2015-2016. Almost 4 in 10 adults had obesity in 2015-2016, and that is the highest prevalence of obesity ever reported among all US adults.

Among youth, there was a significant increase in obesity prevalence between 1999-2000 and 2015-2016, however, between 2003-2004 and 2013-2014 the prevalence was unchanged at 17% and there was no statistically significant change between 2013-2014 and 2015-2016. We are continuing to analyze trends in both youth and adults.


Q: Would it be accurate to say that, among adults at least, the percentage who have obesity hasn’t changed much in recent years, but has definitely increased over the past 10 or 15 years?

CH: The prevalence of obesity among adults has definitely increased since 1999-2000. Since 1999-2000 the prevalence has increased almost 10 percentage points from 30.5% to 39.6%, or almost 40%. From one 2-year cycle to the next, changes in obesity prevalence may appear small, but when we look over time, we are better able to see trends.


Q: Between adolescents, school-aged kids, and pre-schoolers, what are the most significant patterns among our youth, based on these new data?

CH: Among youth, these data show that school-aged kids and adolescents have a higher prevalence of obesity than pre-schoolers. This is the same pattern we have seen in previous reports from this survey.


Q: The U.S. has changed quite a bit demographically over the past 30 years, and this corresponds with large increases in the percentages who are obese. With obesity prevalence being significantly higher among U.S. Hispanics, would it be accurate to say that at least some of the increase in obesity prevalence in the U.S. is a characteristic of demographic change?

CH: It’s true that both non-Hispanic black and Hispanic adults have a higher prevalence than non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic Asians, although the patterns are different in men and women. Previous reports have found that trends over time are not explained by these demographic changes.

For this report we focused on a cross-section of the US population in 2015-2016, but we are continuing to analyze the data, including the impact of demographic changes on trends over time.


Q: What finding in your new report did you find most striking?

CH: What I found most striking is that almost 40% of adults in the US had obesity in 2015-2016. This is almost 10 percentage points higher than the prevalence was in 1999-2000. It is the highest prevalence of obesity ever reported among all US adults.


Q: What is the best advice for those who want to control their weight?

CH: I recommend that anyone who wants to lose weight talk to their healthcare provider. People can also learn more about US diet and physical activity guidelines at health.gov.


Q: Anything else you’d like to note about the new study?

CH: Measured height and weight is the gold standard for generating accurate estimates of obesity prevalence. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey is unique in that it combines both interviews in the home and physical examinations in mobile examination centers, and it is the only national survey where people’s height and weight are physically measured.

Other surveys report obesity prevalence based on self-reported height and weight, but several studies have found serious inaccuracies with self-reported or proxy-reported height and weight. Among adults and teens, self-reported height tends to be overreported and weight is underreported, although misreporting can vary among subgroups of the population – but this misreporting leads to underestimates of obesity prevalence.


 

 

 

 


Fact or Fiction: Do boys miss more school days due to illness and injury than girls?

October 2, 2017

Source: National Health Interview Survey, 2015

https://ftp.cdc.gov/pub/Health_Statistics/NCHS/NHIS/SHS/2015_SHS_Table_C-6.pdf


Births in the United States, 2016

September 27, 2017

Questions for Joyce A. Martin, M.P.H., Demographer, Statistician, and Lead Author on “Births in the United States, 2016.”

Q: How have birth rates changed in 2016 among different age groups?

JM: In general, births rates for women aged under 30 declined in 2016, whereas rates for women 30 and over rose. By age group, however, the change in rates changed differed considerably. The birth rates for teens aged 15-19 declined 9% from 2015 to 2016, whereas the rates declined 4% for women aged 20-24 and 2% for women aged 25-29. For women aged 30 and over, rate rose 1% for women aged 30-34, 2% for women aged 35-39, and 4% for women aged 40-44. As a result of the rise in the birth rate for older women, women aged 30–34 have for the first time in 2016 a higher birth rate than women aged 25–29.


Q: What did your report find on the trends for triplet and higher order multiple births?

JM: The rate of triplet and higher order multiple births was 101.4 per 100,000 total births in 2016, down 48% from the peak in 1998.


Q: Was there anything in the 2016 birth data that surprised you?

JM: The continued decline in birth rates among women under age 30 and the continued increase in the preterm birth rate which rose for the second straight year to 9.85% in 2016.  This rate had been on the decline from 2007 to 2014.


Q: What is the take home message from this report?

JM: The report documents a continuation of recent trends in several key birth measures in the United States.  Most notably, continued declines in childbearing among women under 30 years of age, continued declines in the cesarean delivery rate and increases in the preterm birth rate.


Q: When do you expect the Final 2016 Births report will be released?

JM: We expect the report to be released late this year or in early 2018.


QuickStats: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease Death Rates Among Women Aged 45–64 Years, by Race and Age Group — National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2000–2015

September 25, 2017

Among black women aged 45–54 years, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease death rate decreased 60% from 28.4 per 100,000 in 2006 to 11.5 in 2015.

Among black women aged 55–64 years, the rate increased 42% from 10.0 in 2000 to 14.2 in 2008, before declining to 10.3 in 2015.

Among white women aged 45–54 years, the rate decreased 53% from 1.9 in 2005 to 0.9 in 2015.

Among white women aged 55–64 years, the rate did not change, remaining at about 0.8.

Throughout the period, HIV disease death rates among black women were higher compared with rates among white women for both age groups.

Source: National Vital Statistics System

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/66/wr/mm6637a11.htm