QuickStats: Percentage of Adults Aged 20 Years or Older Told Their Cholesterol Was High Who Were Taking Lipid-Lowering Medications by Sex and Age Group — National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2006 to 2015–2016

July 16, 2018

The percentage of men told by a health professional that their cholesterol was high who were taking lipid-lowering medications increased from 36% in 2005–2006 to 50% in 2015–2016 among those aged 60 years or older but not among those aged 20–39 years (1% to 2%) or 40–59 years (16% to 17%).

The percentage taking lipid-lowering medications also increased (from 33% to 38%) among women aged 60 years or older but not among women aged 20–39 years (1% to 0.7%) or 40–59 years (from 13% to 11%).

For each survey year from 2005–2006 to 2015–2016, the percentage of both men and women with high cholesterol taking lipid-lowering medications was higher among those aged ≥60 years than those in younger age groups.

Source:  Carroll MD, Mussilino ME, Wolz M, Srinivas PR. Trends in apolipoprotein B, non–high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein for adults 60 years and older by use of lipid-lowering medications: United States, 2005–2006 to 2013–2014 [Research Letter]. Circulation 2018;138:208–10. http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/138/2/208

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/mm6727a6.htm?s_cid=mm6727a6_e

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Regional Deaths in the U.S. by Floods, Storms or Lightning, 2010-2016

July 13, 2018

Storms-Floods-Lightning (2)Source:  CDC WONDER: wonder.cdc.gov


Fertility of Men and Women Aged 15–44 in the United States: National Survey of Family Growth, 2011–2015

July 11, 2018

Questions for Gladys Martinez, Statistician, and Lead Author of “Fertility of Men and Women Aged 15–44 in the United States: National Survey of Family Growth, 2011–2015

Q: Why did you decide to examine fertility measures in the United States?

GM: This report provides basic information about four fertility measures for the nation using data from the 2011-2015 National Survey of Family Growth for women and men aged 15-44: percentage of men and women who have ever had a biological child, how many children they have, the timing of first births, and birth spacing. Differences are shown by age, marital or cohabiting status, education, income, and Hispanic origin and race.


Q: How did the rates estimates vary by gender for women and men?

GM: Some comparisons of the fertility estimates in this report are made for women and men, but these differences were not the focus of the report. Some differences for women and men include the percentage who have ever had a child. By age 40-44, 85.0% of women and 80.4% of men have ever had a child. Among women and men who have ever had a child, the average age at first birth was 23.1 for women and 25.5 for men, similar to the estimates from 2006-2010. The average number of births was 1.2 for women and 0.9 for men.


Q: How did the rates estimates vary by Hispanic origin and race?

GM: Some differences by Hispanic origin and race that are shown in the report include that non-Hispanic Asian women had the highest mean age at first birth (26.7) across all groups shown (24.1 for non-Hispanic white women, and 21.5 for Hispanic women and 21.2 for non-Hispanic black women ). The probability of having a first birth before age 20 was highest for Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women (28%) and lowest for non-Hispanic Asian women (4%).


Q: How did the estimates vary by educational level?

GM: Some differences by educational attainment included that women and men with lower levels of education were more like to have had a birth, to have had more children, and have had their first child at a younger age. For example, among women aged 22-44 who have ever had a child, 53.9% of women with less than a high school education had their first birth before age 20. This percentage for women with a Bachelor’s degree or higher was 5.5%. In this report, education was measured at the time of interview, not at the time of the child’s birth. Differences by education are shown for women and men aged 22-44 since many of those ages 15-21 have not completed their education.


Q: Were there any major changes in the fertility estimates from previous years?

GM: In this report some comparisons of the overall estimates for the percentage of men and women who have ever had a biological child, how many children they have, the timing of first births, and birth spacing for 2011-2015 are made with 2006-2010. Most estimates were similar across the two time points. One difference was that the average number of children born to women decreased from 1.3 in 2006-2010 to 1.2 in 2011-2015 .


QuickStats: Percentage of Injury Deaths That Occurred in the Decedent’s Home for the Five Most Common Causes† of Injury Death — United States, 2016

July 9, 2018

In 2016, 31% of deaths from all causes of injury occurred in the person’s home.

The percentage varied by the cause of injury. More than half of the deaths attributable to poisoning (52%) occurred in the home.

Approximately 44% of deaths from firearms and suffocation occurred in the home.

Source: National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, Mortality File. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/deaths.htm.

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/mm6726a6.htm


QuickStats: Percentage of Residential Care Communities That Use Electronic Health Records by Census Region — United States, 2016

July 2, 2018

In 2016, 26% of residential care communities used electronic health records (EHRs).

The percentage that used EHRs was 36% of communities in the Northeast, 41% of communities in the Midwest, 24% of communities in the South, and 17% of communities in the West.

Source: National Study of Long-Term Care Providers, 2016 data. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nsltcp/index.htm.

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/mm6725a8.htm


State Variation in Meeting the 2008 Federal Guidelines for Both Aerobic and Muscle-strengthening Activities Through Leisure-time Physical Activity Among Adults Aged 18-64: United States, 2010-2015

June 28, 2018

Questions for Lead Authors Debra L. Blackwell, Ph.D., Demographic Statistician, and Tainya C. Clarke, Ph.D., M.P.H., Health Statistician, of “State Variation in Meeting the 2008 Federal Guidelines for Both Aerobic and Muscle-strengthening Activities Through Leisure-time Physical Activity Among Adults Aged 18-64: United States, 2010-2015

Q:  Was there a result in your study that you hadn’t expected and that really surprised you?

DB/TC:  The result that we found most surprising – and it really is quite striking – is the state-level variation in  the percentages of adults who were meeting the federal physical activity guidelines through their leisure-time physical activity. We were also surprised that many of the states with the highest percentages of meeting the guidelines through leisure-time physical activity were “cold weather” states that get more snow during winter months. How are people in these states meeting these guidelines during the colder winter months? Are they participating in outdoor winter sports, do they exercise at indoor facilities, or some combination of outdoor and indoor activities? Unfortunately we can’t answer these questions with our data, but it would be interesting to know. In addition, previous research has generally shown higher rates of leisure-time physical activity for men than for women. This also includes studies that look at meeting the 2008 federal guidelines for aerobic and muscle-strengthening activities through leisure-time physical activity. While our current study also found that men were more likely than women to meet the guidelines through leisure-time physical activity, some states were exceptions – especially Colorado, but also in Massachusetts, Washington, New Hampshire, Utah, and Wyoming, where men and women had statistically comparable percentages.


Q:  What would you say is the take-home message of this report?

DB/TC:  This is a “good news” data report – for the most part. We think the real take-home message of this report is that, overall, American adults aged 18-64 are exceeding guideline targets for physical activity through their leisure-time physical activity. The Healthy People 2020 objective regarding physical activity specifies that 20.1% of all adults meet both aerobic and muscle-strengthening federal guidelines by 2020. We found that in 2010-2015, nearly 23% of adults aged 18-64 were accomplishing this through their leisure-time physical activity– a truly positive finding. But when we looked at differences by gender and work status, we found that among all women aged 18–64, 18.7% met the guidelines through their leisure-time physical activity, which is nearly two percentage points lower than the Healthy People target. While the average for working women (20.9%) was above the target, the average among all nonworking women was only 14.6%, almost six percentage points lower than the Healthy People 2020 target. Nonworking women in just five states—Colorado, Idaho, New Hampshire, Utah, and Washington—met the objective through their leisure-time physical activity. We should keep in mind though, that the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) only collects information on leisure-time physical activity, so our study was not able to look at occupational physical activity.


Q:  What made you decide to conduct this study on physical activity among Americans?

DB/TC:  One motivation for conducting this study was that we wanted to look at state-by-state percentages.  This new report is a continuation of a previous report (https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhsr/nhsr094.pdf) that looked at occupational differences among employed adults who met federal physical activity guidelines during their leisure-time physical activity. That report focused on individuals, not states, and excluded adults who were not working. While doing that analysis, we saw that there was considerable regional variation in the outcome.  We wanted to expand that earlier research to include all adults in this same age group (working as well as nonworking), and to consider differences in meeting the guidelines by state because we had already seen this regional variation.


Q:  What differences or similarities did you see between or among various demographic groups in this analysis?

DB/TC:  We did observe some differences between men and women, as well as by work status, but we didn’t distinguish between many demographic groups since this was a state-level analysis. Men had higher percentages of meeting the guidelines through leisure-time physical activity than women overall — and within most, but not all, states. This was also true when we compared working and nonworking men and women overall and within most states.


Q:  Why do you think there is such a vast difference among the states in the percentage of adults who meet the guidelines for physical activity through their leisure-time physical activity?

DB/TC:  There are likely many factors that play a role in these state differences, as researchers are likely to suggest. We looked at just two: occupational distributions among working adults (and among working men and women), and at percentages of illness and disability among nonworking adults (and among nonworking men and women). States with higher percentages of professionals and managers — relative to production workers –generally had higher percentages of working adults meeting the federal guidelines for physical activity during their leisure time than states with more production workers and fewer professionals and managers. Similarly, states with higher percentages of nonworking adults in fair or poor health or with a disability had lower percentages of meeting the guidelines during their leisure time than states with fewer nonworking adults in fair or poor health or with a disability. Indeed, many factors are likely involved. And we only considered leisure-time physical activity in our study. Our survey doesn’t collect information on physical activity performed while at work or when commuting.


Q:  What sort of trend data do you have on this topic that will help us see how physical activity for Americans has evolved over time?

DB/TC:  There is some trend data available through various sources. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has published several reports on this topic; the 2014 report is available at https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/downloads/pa_state_indicator_report_2014.pdf, and a 2010 report is available at https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/downloads/PA_State_Indicator_Report_2010.pdf. CDC also has mini-reports available for each state that take into account state-specific data; these are available at  https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/resources/state-action-guides.html.

Also, the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reports Key Health Indicators based on the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), including person-level estimates of adults aged 18 and over who meet the 2008 federal physical activity guidelines for both aerobic and muscle-strengthening activities during leisure-time physical activity. Please see tables 7.5 through 7.8 in https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis/releases/released201806.htm#7A.


Q:  Is this the most recent data you have on this topic?

DB/TC:  While we do have newer data files, those data were not available when we were carrying out our analysis. So our current report is based on 2010-2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data. However, the most recent Key Health Indicators report at the website immediately above includes results from the 2016 and 2017 National Health Interview Survey.


Q: How many people were surveyed for this report?

DB/TC:  The National Health Interview Survey, or NHIS, is a national, in-person survey conducted annually. Roughly 35,000 U.S. adults respond to the “Sample Adult” interview in any given survey year, and all of them are asked a series of questions about how often, how long, and how vigorously they spend leisure time doing exercise. This report looks at state-level variation in meeting the 2008 federal guidelines for physical activity through leisure-time physical activity among adults aged 18-64 using the 2010-2015 NHIS. The 2008 physical activity guidelines recommend muscle-strengthening activities at least twice weekly, with either moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity for at least 150 minutes per week, vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity for at least 75 minutes per week, or an equivalent combination. For those of our readers interested in the specific sample sizes used in this analysis, here are the numbers:

Sample adults aged 18-64 years who met the guidelines for both muscle-strengthening and aerobic activities through leisure physical activity (n = 32,942) are the focus of the study. Sample adults meeting only one guideline (n = 48,810) or neither guideline (n = 70,402) are not shown separately, but are included in the denominators. Percentage estimates are based on pooled data from the 2010–2015 NHIS for all 50 states and the District of Columbia.

 


QuickStats: Percentage of Adults Aged 18 Years or Older With or Without Psychological Distress† Who Were Current Smokers, by Age Group and Level of Distress — National Health Interview Survey, 2014–2016

June 18, 2018

During 2014–2016, 37.2% of adults aged 18 years or older with serious psychological distress were current smokers, followed by 27.6% of those with mild to moderate psychological distress and 14% of those with no psychological distress.

Among adults aged 18–44 and 45–64 years, the percentage of adults who were current smokers increased with the level of psychological distress.

Among adults aged 65 years or older, the percentage who were current smokers was less among adults with no psychological distress than among adults with mild to moderate or serious psychological distress.

Source: National Health Interview Survey, 2014–2016. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis/index.htm

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/mm6723a6.htm